AP Human Geography Semester 1 exam Flashcards (2022)

Term

What is Cartography?

Definition

Cartography- the science of map making

Term

what is scale?

Definition

the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole

Term

Which has a larger scale, a state map or a city map?

Definition

city map

Term

In terms of maps, what is a projection?

Definition

the system used to transfer location from Earth's surface to a flat map

Term

What is more remote sensing and when is it useful?

Definition

acquistion of data about Earth's surface from a statilite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods

Term

What is GIS?

Definition

Geographical informational system- computer sustem that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data

Term

What is a toponym?

Definition

name on the earth's surface

Term

What is meant by the situation of a place?

Definition

location of a place relative to other places

Term

From where is (a) latitude and (b) longitude measured?

Definition

a- north and south of equator

b- east and west of the prime meridian

Term

What and where is GMT?

Definition

Greenwich Mean Time- the master reference for all points on earth (universal time)

Term

Where in general is the world's population growing the fastest?

Definition

in LCD's

Term

What exactly is over population?

Definition

the number of people in an area that exceeds the capacity of the enviorment to support life at a decent standard of living

Term

What part of the world has the highest concentration?

Definition

East asia (china)

Term

where is the world's largest urbanized region?

Definition

Western Europe

Term

What places or conditions do most humans avoid settling?

Definition

cold and wet

Term

what is physiological density?

Definition

number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture

Term

agricultural density?

Definition

number of farmers per unit area of farmland

Term

arithmetic denisty?

Definition

total number of objects in an area, is commonly used to compare the distribution of population in different countries

Term

what is the total fertility rate and where in general is it highest?

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Definition

to measure # of births in a society

subsaharan africa and middle east (LDC's)

Term

Describe what happens to the CBR between stage one and stage four.

Definition

it decreases

Term

what is meant by a mobility?

Definition

all types of movements from one place to another

Term

What is migration?

Definition

form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new locatoin

Term

list reasons for refugee migration and which today is the most common region?

Definition

persecution because their race, religon, nationality in a soicety

Africa and Isreal

Term

what is a push factor?

Definition

induces people to move out of the country

Term

what is a pull factor?

Definition

attracts people to certain countries

Term

what was the Iron Curtain?

Definition

border between free European and Eastern Communist

Term

why was the berlin wall built?

Definition

stop people from traveling form east to west Germany

Term

what is a brain drain and what causes it?

Definition

large scale emigtion by talented people from LCDs to MDCs

Term

What has been the most significant migration of the US African American population?

Definition

left southern states to go to the northern cities

Term

what is the most common type of intraregional migration in the world today?

Definition

older cities to suburbs

Term

what is a custom?

Definition

frequent repetition of an act the extent that it becomes a characteristics of the group of people preforming it

Term

what is a habit?

Definition

a repitive act performed by a particular individual

Term

compare the type of groups that are considered popular and folk.

Definition

popular- large heterogenous societies that share certain habits

folk-small homogenous groups living in isolated rural areas

Term

what is primary reason for the spread of folk culture?

Definition

relocation and diffussion

Term

how does popular culture spred faster than folk culture?

Definition

new, magazines, newspaper (communication)

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Term

how is a folk song typically different from a folk song?

Definition

pop.- more recent-explicit-rhythmic

ethnic- about enviorment or daily life

Term

what is a taboo?

Definition

a restriction or behavior imposed by a social custom

Term

what is a uniform landscape and which type of culture is like to promote it?

Definition

everything looks the same; pop culture

Term

what is meant by literary tradition?

Definition

a language that is written as well as spoken

Term

what is dialect?

Definition

regional variety of alanguage distinguished by vocab, spelling and pronounciation

Term

what is a language family?

Definition

a collection of language related to each other than a common ancestry long before recorded history

Term

what is a language group?

Definition

a collection of language that share a common orgin in the realtively recent past, few differences in vocab and grammar

Term

rank in order the top two language families

Definition

indo european

sino tibetan

Term

what three germanic groups invaded England?

Definition

jutes, angles, saxons

Term

what group gave england the French language?

Definition

Normans

Term

of which group does the english language come from?

Definition

west germanic

Term

of which language family does the English language come?

Definition

Indo-European

Term

why has iceland's language changed so little?

Definition

its very isolated

Term

what are the Romance languages?

Definition

Spanish, French, Romanian, Pourtugese and Italian

Term

what is a creolized language?

Definition

a mixture of the colonizers language and the indigenous people

Term

what is (a) the most widely spoken and (b) the most commonly spoken language?

Definition

a-English

b-Madarin Chinese

Term

what is the difference between a religious branch and sect?

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Definition

branch- large and fundamental division w/in a region

sect- realtively small group of religion

Term

what is a universalizing religon?

Definition

that tries to spread throughout the world

Term

what is the worlds largest univeralizing religon?

Definition

Christianity

Term

what is the worlds largest eithic religon?

Definition

Hinduism

Term

what is an ethnic religion?

Definition

religon that appears to one group of people living in one place

Term

List the main branches of Christanity.

Definition

Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox

Term

list the three main ethnic religons.

Definition

hinduism, conuciansm, daoism, shintoism, Judaism

Term

Name the main Protestant denominations in the US.

Definition

Luthern, Baptist, Mormon, Methodist and Pentacostal

Term

Rank the two denomitations of Islam.

Definition

Sunni

Shia

Term

What effect does the caste system have on Hindus?

Definition

bound to their own caste

Term

what is cosmonongy?

Definition

a set of religous beliefs concerning the religon of the universe

Term

what is soveriegnty?

Definition

the ability of a state to govern its territory, free from control of its internal affairs by other states

Term

what are the common shared elements that create nationalism?

Definition

self detirmination, devotion, pride and loyalty

Term

what is meant by the right to self-determination?

Definition

concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themsleves

Term

What is the difference between a nation and a state?

Definition

nation-is the people who live there

state- goverent meant

Term

what is balkanization and where in europe has it caused major problems?

Definition

process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicties (balkan pennisula)

Term

what were the three sides to the triangular trade?

Definition

Europe, Africa, Americas

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Term

Describe the mass ethnic migration in Indian sub-continent in 1947.

Definition

muslims- pakistan

india-Hindus

Term

what is apartheid and where is it prominent?

Definition

physical separaton of different races into different geographical places

south africa

Term

how does race differ from ethnicity?

Definition

ethnicity- a group of people who share cultural traditions

race-biological traits

Term

what region/state is the main source of conflict in the Middle East?

Definition

Isreal

Term

What are the three disputed areas still held by Isreal today?

Definition

golan heights, west bank, gaza strip

Term

where were the first city-states?

Definition

Mesopotamia

Term

what is a colony?

Definition

territory that is legally tied to a soverign state rather than being completely independent

Term

where was the first widespread use of the nation-state concept?

Definition

western europe

Term

what is a physical boundary(examples)?

Definition

Mountains, Lakes, Deserts

Andes, Great Lakes, Sahara

Term

what has caused much of the intra-state conflicts in Africa?

Definition

inappropirate drawing of boundaries/different ethnicities

Term

what is the difference between a unitary state and a federal state?

Definition

unitary all power is in one

federal all power goes off to different people

Term

what is GDP?

Definition

gross domestic product

Term

what type of nation would be mostly involved in a primary sector ecomony?

Definition

LDCs

Term

what is value added and where is high value added generally found?

Definition

gross value of the product minus the cost of raw materials minus energy

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