Barron's AP Human Geography Chapter 1 vocab - Flashcards | StudyHippo.com (2022)

Barron's AP Human Geography Chapter 1 vocab - Flashcards | StudyHippo.com (1) Ewan Knight

7 July 2022

question

Absolute distance

answer

A distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as a mile or a kilometer.

question

Absolute location

answer

The exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system.

question

Accessibility

answer

The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place.

question

Anthropogenic

answer

Human-induced changes on the natural environment.

question

Azimuthal projection

answer

A map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface.

question

Breaking point

answer

The outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supplies.

question

Choropleth map

answer

A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area.

question

Cognitive map

answer

An image of a portion of Earth's surface that an individual creates in his or her min. Cognitive maps can include knowledge of actual locations and relationships among locations as well as personal perceptions and preferences of particular places.

question

Complementarity

answer

The actual or potential relationships between two places, usually referring to economic interactions.

question

Dot maps

answer

Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births.

question

Earth System Science

answer

A systematic approach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between Earth's physical systems and processes on a global scale.

question

Friction of distance

answer

A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places.

question

Fuller projection

answer

A type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the four cardinal directions--north, south, east, and west--no longer have any meaning.

question

Geoid

answer

the actual shape of the Earth, which is tough and oblate, or slightly squashed. Earth's diameter is longer along the equator than along the north-south meridians.

question

Gravity model

answer

A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.

question

Idiographic

answer

Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place.

question

Intervening opportunities

answer

If one place has a demand for some good or service and two places have a supply of equal price and quality, the supplier closer to the buyer will represent an intervening opportunity, thereby blocking the third from being able to share its supply of goods and services. Intervening opportunities are frequently used because transportation costs usually decrease with proximity.

question

Isoline

answer

A map line that connects points of equal or very similar values.

question

Large scale

answer

A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. Large-scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps.

question

Law of retail gravitation

answer

A law stating that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business since larger cities have a wider influence on the surrounding hinterlands.

question

location charts

answer

On a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information about a particular political unit or jurisdiction.

question

George Perkins Marsh

answer

An inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic work, "Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action," provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions.

question

Mercator projection

answer

A true conformal cylindrical map projection, the Mercator projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. Mercator projections are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized.

question

(Video) how to self study ap human geography (and get a 5)

Natural landscape

answer

The physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities.

question

Nomothetic

answer

Concepts or rules that can be applied universally.

question

Peters projection

answer

An equal-area projection purposely centered on Africa in an attempt to treat all regions of Earth .equally.

question

Preference map

answer

A map that displays individual preferences for certain places.

question

Proportional symbols map

answer

A thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol--such as a circle or triangle--indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region.

question

Quantitative revolution

answer

A period in human geography associated with the widespread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques.

question

Reference map

answer

A map type that shows reference information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigation.

question

Regional geography

answer

The study of geographic regions.

question

Relative distance

answer

A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic, connectivity between two places.

question

Resolution

answer

A map's smallest discernable unit. If, for example, an object has to be one kilometer long in order for it to show up on a map, that map's resolution is one kilometer.

question

Robinson projection

answer

A projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain area, shape, distance, or direction completely accurately, but it minimizes errors in each.

question

Sense of place

answer

Feelings evoked by people as a result of certain experiences and memories associated with a particular place.

question

Small scale

answer

A map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small. Small-scale maps usually depict large areas.

question

Spatial perspective

answer

An intellectual framework that looks at the particular locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is where it is, and, finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other places.

question

Thematic layers

answer

Individual maps of specific features that are overlaid on one another in a Geographical Information System to understand and analyze a spatial relationship.

question

Thematic map

answer

A type of map that displays one or more variables--such as population, or income level--within a specific area.

question

Time-space convergence

answer

The idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places.

question

Topological space

answer

The amount of connectivity between places regardless of the absolute distance separating them.

question

Transferability

answer

The costs involved in moving goods from one place to another.

question

Visualization

answer

Use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three dimensional or interactive.

question

Cartograms

answer

A type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area.

question

Cartography

answer

The theory and practice of making visual representations of the Earth's surface in the form of maps.

question

Cultural ecology

answer

The study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments which they live in.

question

Cultural landscape

answer

The human-modified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a particular culture or society.

question

Eratosthenes

answer

The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century B.C.; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography."

question

Functional region

(Video) Barron's AP Human Geography Flash Cards, 2nd Edition

answer

Definition of regions based on common interaction (or function) for example, a boundary line drawn around the circulation of a particular newspaper.

question

Geographic Information Systems

answer

A set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze, and display geographic data.

question

Map projection

answer

A mathematical method that involves transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface. This term can also be used to describe the type of map that results from the process of projecting. All map projections have distortions in either area, direction, distance, or shape.

question

Perceptual region

answer

Highly individualized definition of regions based on perceived commonalities in culture and landscape.

question

Ptolemy

answer

Roman geographer-astronomer and author of "Guide to Geography" which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude.

question

Region

answer

A territory that encompasses many places that share similar attributes (may be physical, cultural, or both) in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere.

question

Relative location

answer

The position of a place relative to the places around it.

question

Remote sensing

answer

The observation and mathematical measurement of the earth's surface using aircraft and satellites. The sensors include both photographic images, thermal images, multispectral scanners, and radar images.

question

Site

answer

The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics.

question

Situation

answer

The relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system; a place's spatial context.

question

Geographic Scale

answer

The scale which the geographer analyzes a particular phenomenon, for example: global, national, census tract, neighborhood, etc. Generally, the finer the scale of analysis, the richer the level of detail in the findings

question

W.D Pattison

answer

He claimed that geography drew from four distinct traditions : the earth science tradition, the culture environment tradition, the locational tradition, and the area analysis tradition.

question

Projection

answer

The system of used to transfer locations from Earths surface to a flat map

question

Carl Sauer

answer

Geographer from University of California at Berkley who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. The landscape results from from the interaction between humans and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no landscape has escaped alteration by human activities.

question

Absolute distance

answer

A distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as a mile or a kilometer.

question

Absolute location

answer

The exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system.

question

Accessibility

answer

The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place.

question

Anthropogenic

answer

Human-induced changes on the natural environment.

question

Azimuthal projection

answer

A map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface.

question

Breaking point

answer

The outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supplies.

question

Choropleth map

answer

A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area.

question

Cognitive map

answer

An image of a portion of Earth's surface that an individual creates in his or her min. Cognitive maps can include knowledge of actual locations and relationships among locations as well as personal perceptions and preferences of particular places.

question

Complementarity

answer

The actual or potential relationships between two places, usually referring to economic interactions.

question

Dot maps

answer

Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births.

question

Earth System Science

answer

A systematic approach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between Earth's physical systems and processes on a global scale.

question

(Video) How I Got a 5 on the AP Human Geography Exam | Guaranteed and Easy Ways to Get a 5 on the APHG Exam

Friction of distance

answer

A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places.

question

Fuller projection

answer

A type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the four cardinal directions--north, south, east, and west--no longer have any meaning.

question

Geoid

answer

the actual shape of the Earth, which is tough and oblate, or slightly squashed. Earth's diameter is longer along the equator than along the north-south meridians.

question

Gravity model

answer

A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.

question

Idiographic

answer

Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place.

question

Intervening opportunities

answer

If one place has a demand for some good or service and two places have a supply of equal price and quality, the supplier closer to the buyer will represent an intervening opportunity, thereby blocking the third from being able to share its supply of goods and services. Intervening opportunities are frequently used because transportation costs usually decrease with proximity.

question

Isoline

answer

A map line that connects points of equal or very similar values.

question

Large scale

answer

A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. Large-scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps.

question

Law of retail gravitation

answer

A law stating that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business since larger cities have a wider influence on the surrounding hinterlands.

question

location charts

answer

On a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information about a particular political unit or jurisdiction.

question

George Perkins Marsh

answer

An inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic work, "Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action," provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions.

question

Mercator projection

answer

A true conformal cylindrical map projection, the Mercator projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. Mercator projections are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized.

question

Natural landscape

answer

The physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities.

question

Nomothetic

answer

Concepts or rules that can be applied universally.

question

Peters projection

answer

An equal-area projection purposely centered on Africa in an attempt to treat all regions of Earth .equally.

question

Preference map

answer

A map that displays individual preferences for certain places.

question

Proportional symbols map

answer

A thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol--such as a circle or triangle--indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region.

question

Quantitative revolution

answer

A period in human geography associated with the widespread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques.

question

Reference map

answer

A map type that shows reference information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigation.

question

Regional geography

answer

The study of geographic regions.

question

Relative distance

answer

A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic, connectivity between two places.

question

Resolution

answer

A map's smallest discernable unit. If, for example, an object has to be one kilometer long in order for it to show up on a map, that map's resolution is one kilometer.

question

Robinson projection

answer

A projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain area, shape, distance, or direction completely accurately, but it minimizes errors in each.

question

Sense of place

answer

Feelings evoked by people as a result of certain experiences and memories associated with a particular place.

question

Small scale

answer

A map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small. Small-scale maps usually depict large areas.

question

Spatial perspective

(Video) Best AP World Prep Book: Princeton vs Barron's

answer

An intellectual framework that looks at the particular locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is where it is, and, finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other places.

question

Thematic layers

answer

Individual maps of specific features that are overlaid on one another in a Geographical Information System to understand and analyze a spatial relationship.

question

Thematic map

answer

A type of map that displays one or more variables--such as population, or income level--within a specific area.

question

Time-space convergence

answer

The idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places.

question

Topological space

answer

The amount of connectivity between places regardless of the absolute distance separating them.

question

Transferability

answer

The costs involved in moving goods from one place to another.

question

Visualization

answer

Use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three dimensional or interactive.

question

Cartograms

answer

A type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area.

question

Cartography

answer

The theory and practice of making visual representations of the Earth's surface in the form of maps.

question

Cultural ecology

answer

The study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments which they live in.

question

Cultural landscape

answer

The human-modified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a particular culture or society.

question

Eratosthenes

answer

The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century B.C.; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography."

question

Functional region

answer

Definition of regions based on common interaction (or function) for example, a boundary line drawn around the circulation of a particular newspaper.

question

Geographic Information Systems

answer

A set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze, and display geographic data.

question

Map projection

answer

A mathematical method that involves transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface. This term can also be used to describe the type of map that results from the process of projecting. All map projections have distortions in either area, direction, distance, or shape.

question

Perceptual region

answer

Highly individualized definition of regions based on perceived commonalities in culture and landscape.

question

Ptolemy

answer

Roman geographer-astronomer and author of "Guide to Geography" which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude.

question

Region

answer

A territory that encompasses many places that share similar attributes (may be physical, cultural, or both) in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere.

question

Relative location

answer

The position of a place relative to the places around it.

question

Remote sensing

answer

The observation and mathematical measurement of the earth's surface using aircraft and satellites. The sensors include both photographic images, thermal images, multispectral scanners, and radar images.

question

Site

answer

The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics.

question

Situation

answer

The relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system; a place's spatial context.

question

Geographic Scale

answer

The scale which the geographer analyzes a particular phenomenon, for example: global, national, census tract, neighborhood, etc. Generally, the finer the scale of analysis, the richer the level of detail in the findings

question

W.D Pattison

answer

He claimed that geography drew from four distinct traditions : the earth science tradition, the culture environment tradition, the locational tradition, and the area analysis tradition.

question

Projection

answer

The system of used to transfer locations from Earths surface to a flat map

question

Carl Sauer

answer

Geographer from University of California at Berkley who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. The landscape results from from the interaction between humans and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no landscape has escaped alteration by human activities.

(Video) Study With Me: AP Art History ~ Flashcards & Readin

FAQs

Is AP Human Geography a hard AP? ›

AP Human Geography is often labeled as moderately to highly difficult, primarily for its unique course content. While the concept of human geography may seem foreign to many students, chances are they've already explored some of the course's tenets on their own.

Is AP Human Geography easy to self study? ›

The Human Geography AP exam is among the APs most commonly taken as a self-study test. Although many students do enroll in the actual class, this particular exam is well-suited to self-studying due to its heavy emphasis on vocabulary and highly specific theory.

What is the pass Rate for the AP Human Geography exam? ›

What Is the AP Geography Pass Rate 2021? The AP Human Geography 2021 pass rate was 54%, slightly lower than the all-AP-classes average.

How long does it take to study for AP Human Geography? ›

It should take approximately eight hours to study for the AP Human Geography exam. Of course, you can always extend the time you spend reviewing content if you're rusty on a bunch of different topics or just want to be extra thorough.

How many people got a 5 on AP Human Geography? ›

AP Score Distributions
Exam54
AP Human Geography14.4%19.7%
AP Macroeconomics18.0%19.6%
AP Microeconomics18.5%24.0%
AP Psychology14.1%21.2%
5 more rows

Does Harvard accept AP Human Geography? ›

Harvard confers 4 or 8 credits for eac eligible AP exam depending on whether the exam covers one semester or one full year's worth of material.
...
Advanced Placement Exams.
EXAMAP SCOREHARVARD CREDIT
AP European History58
AP Human Geography50
AP Macroeconomics54
AP Microeconomics54
39 more rows

What is the hardest AP class? ›

Physics 1

AP Physics 1 is considered one of the hardest AP classes, covering topics like Newtonian mechanics and electrical charge and force. Students also spend about 25% of their class time performing college-level lab experiments and writing reports.

What are the hardest AP classes ranked? ›

The Three Hardest AP Classes
  1. AP Physics 1. Despite a reputation as one of the most difficult AP classes, Physics 1 is also one of the most popular—137,229 students took it in 2021. ...
  2. AP U.S. History. AP U.S. history is one of the hardest AP classes in the humanities and in general. ...
  3. AP Chemistry.
24 Jan 2022

What is the hardest AP exam? ›

United States History, Biology, English Literature, Calculus BC, Physics C, and Chemistry are often named as the hardest AP classes and tests.

Why do so many people fail the AP Human Geography exam? ›

Your score will depend on your level of preparedness for the exam as well as your aptitude for the subject. As you can see, about half the students fail the AP® Human Geography exam each year. This higher failure rate is likely due to the fact that this is the very first AP® exam many students take.

Can you get a 0 on AP Exam? ›

AP tests are scored on a scale of 0-5, with 5 being the highest score you could get. Most schools will give credit for scores of 4 or 5, and some even accept the occasional 3.

Is a 5 on APHG good? ›

A 3, 4, or 5 on an AP® exam is considered a passing score, with 3 described as “qualified”, 4 as “well qualified” and 5 as “extremely well qualified.” It is important to note that many universities will offer college credit for a passing score on an AP® exam, but be sure to verify with the AP® credit policy of any ...

What percent is a 5 on an AP exam? ›

Usually, a 70 to 75 percent out of 100 translates to a 5. However, there are some exams that are exceptions to this rule of thumb. The AP Grades that are reported to students, high schools, colleges, and universities in July are on AP's five-point scale: 5: Extremely well qualified.

How do you not fail in AP Human Geography? ›

Practice makes perfect. The single most important FRQ tip for the AP® Human Geography exam is to practice, practice, practice. The College Board website has valuable resources to help you do just that. There, you will find past free-response essay questions, scoring guidelines, and sample responses.

Is a 2 on an AP Exam passing? ›

Generally speaking, a 2 is not a good AP score, as it is not considered a passing score by the College Board. If you get a 2 on your AP exam, it might be better not to submit that score to the colleges you're applying to.

What is a 3 on an AP Exam equivalent to? ›

The College Board designates a 3 to be “qualified”. That means that you understood and executed the material to the point that you could pass the college class. While you did not receive the highest grade in the class, you did pass. Because of this, many state colleges will accept a 3.

Do colleges care about AP scores? ›

Yes! It's important to remember that AP scores are not only part of the college admissions process; they can also be valuable once you get to college. Policies vary quite widely in terms of which colleges grant credit for which tests.

Do Ivy Leagues care about AP? ›

Most schools — including most Ivy League schools — award college credits for AP classes (assuming a certain exam score). These early credits offer students a head start in their college experience.

Do Ivy Leagues accept 4s on AP exams? ›

It is a fact that five out of the eight Ivy League colleges give college credit for AP exams in which students have scored at least a 4, or in some cases, the score must be a 5. While the AP credit policies vary from school to school, they can also vary from department to department within a school.

How many APs does the average student take? ›

Many competitive applicants at top universities take anywhere from 7 – 12 AP classes throughout high school. In fact, some universities even require students to take multiple AP classes in order for any of them to count as college credit.

What is the hardest AP class? ›

Physics 1

AP Physics 1 is considered one of the hardest AP classes, covering topics like Newtonian mechanics and electrical charge and force. Students also spend about 25% of their class time performing college-level lab experiments and writing reports.

What is the hardest AP exam? ›

United States History, Biology, English Literature, Calculus BC, Physics C, and Chemistry are often named as the hardest AP classes and tests.

What are the hardest AP classes ranked? ›

The Three Hardest AP Classes
  1. AP Physics 1. Despite a reputation as one of the most difficult AP classes, Physics 1 is also one of the most popular—137,229 students took it in 2021. ...
  2. AP U.S. History. AP U.S. history is one of the hardest AP classes in the humanities and in general. ...
  3. AP Chemistry.
24 Jan 2022

What APs do colleges like? ›

As a general rule, you should aim for the following AP class numbers: Most Selective Schools (Top 20): APs in most or all of the core courses (English, Mathematics, Science, History, and Foreign Language), plus additional AP courses that relate to your goals, future major, or interests.

Is 5 APs too much? ›

You can definitely take 5 APs, but just make sure to stay on top of your work and spend a good amount of time studying to make sure you know the material.

Is 4 APs too much? ›

Unless you're applying to the most selective universities, 4 to 5 AP courses over your high school years is more than enough. For students applying to the most selective colleges, you might need 7–12. But even so, taking 4 AP courses in a year can be extremely challenging.

How many AP classes should I take for Harvard? ›

Going up the selectivity chain, the average at Harvard is eight AP classes. To be competitive at some of the most highly selective colleges in the country, 8-12 AP courses may be the sweet spot amount, assuming the student can handle that level of rigor.

Do colleges care about AP? ›

Most of the time, it is up to you whether a college will look at your AP exam scores during the admissions process. The vast majority of colleges do not require that you submit your scores at the time of application. If you scored a 4 or 5 on all of your AP exams then by all means self-report.

How many AP classes do you need for Ivy League? ›

Ivy League

To be a competitive candidate for admission, you will need to take at least 8 AP® classes, more if you can. It is a good idea to take 1 AP® course in each of the following core disciplines: English, Foreign Language, History, Math, and Science to impress the admissions officers.

Is it better to take an AP test and fail or not take it? ›

The most substantial consequence to failing an AP exam is that you will not receive college credit for the course. However, many colleges do not even offer credit for AP courses. So, you may not be missing out on an opportunity at all. Either way, you shouldn't look at this as a scary consequence.

What AP exam has the highest pass rate? ›

Chinese,Calculus BC, Japanese, Drawing, and Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism are the AP tests with the highest average scores, but they are all known to be quite difficult.

How many APs should I take senior year? ›

Aim for four to eight AP exams in your junior and senior years. For competitive Ivy League schools, admission officers also want to see AP courses for core subject areas and additional courses. If possible, aim to pass about seven to 12 AP exams if applying to these highly selective schools.

Is IB harder than AP? ›

Is IB harder than AP? It depends. Some students argue that IB is more challenging because of the emphasis on critical thinking and the more application-focused evaluations. However, both IB and AP classes are considered college-level courses that many students find challenging.

Why is AP so hard? ›

The primary argument for why Advanced Placement classes are so hard is the intensive workload. Students forget to take into that they are taking a college level class, so the workload is supposed to be more intense than a CP or honors class. Students know before taking an AP class what they are getting themselves into.

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