CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 1 (2023)

History - Class 10

Our Past - I

Activity: 1

Question 1:In what way do you think this print (Fig. 1) depicts a utopian vision?

CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 1 (1)

Answer:The print was a utopian vision coz:-

  • All countries were together.
  • The countries were supposed to be nation which didn't existed till then.
  • Men, women and children were given equal status.

Discuss: 1

Question 2:Summarize the attributes of a nation, as Renan understands them. Why, in his view, are nations important?

Answer:Ernst Renan was a French philosopher who delivered a speech at the University of Sorbonne in 1882. In his speech he outlined the idea of what makes a nation. According to Renan, nations are formed by a common language, race, religion or territory. It is the culmination of a long past of endeavor, sacrifices and devotion. A nation does not take any interest in annexing or holding onto another Nation against its will.

Nations are important because their existence guarantee Liberty. The liberty of individuals would be lost if they are no nations

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Discuss: 2

Question 3:Describe the political ends that List hopes to achieve through economic measures.

Answer:A customs union known as Wolverine was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states. This union removed internal impediments and summed up 32 currencies into two. Besides this, it the aim of the union is to bind the Germans economically into a nation by strengthening the nation materially through its protection of interests externally and stimulating its internal production.

Activity: 2

Question 4:Plot on a map of Europe the changes drawn up by the Vienna Congress.

Answer:The Vienna Congress in 1815 changed the boundaries of Europe after the Napoleonic era. The boundaries were changed to make a strong France. Many countries opposed this, but it was remapped with Russia taking most parts of the Napoleonic under its control. The new states with new border were created although Europe with Switzerland being neutral territory. Although Napoleon escaped while in exile but was defeated in Waterloo.

Discuss: 3

Question 5:What is the caricaturist trying to depict?

CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 1 (2)

Answer:The caricaturist is depicting the club of liberal nationalists which dates back 1820. Conservative regimes were set up in 1815. These regimes were autocratic they were not ready to tolerate criticism and dissent. They curbed all the actions which put a question mark on the legitimacy of autocratic governments. Most of the regimes had imposed censorship law to have control over freedom of the press and over songs motivating the ideas of liberty.

(Video) The Rise of Nationalism in Europe class 10 full chapter (Animation) | Class 10 History Chapter 1

Discuss: 4

Question 6:Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.

Answer:A person is identified as belonging to a particular nation by his cultural traditions and the language that he speaks. The language as well as the traditional practices usually develop and get established over a long period of many hundreds of years.

They give an identity to an individual wherever he is. For instance, a Frenchman will normally speak the French language fluently. He will also follow French traditions and customs wherever he is in the world, as he would have imbibed them in his family from his childhood days. Thus, he will be identified as a French national.

Discuss: 5

Question 7:Describe the cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising. Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist.

Answer:The cause of the Silesian weaver's uprising was the cheating of the weavers by the contractors. In 1845, the weavers raised a revolt against the contractors who used to supply them raw material to weave textiles in finished form. The contractors drastically reduced their payments. The viewpoint of the journalist Wilhelm Wolft for this uprising was as fellows- Weaver's crowd reached the house of the contractor and demanded higher wages.

They were not treated well, so a group of the crowd entered the contractors house forcibly and destroyed the furniture, window panes, plundered it. This shows that the viewpoint of the journalist was biased against the weavers and in favour of the contractor. On the other hand, the journalist did not understand the root cause of the uprising. He did not understand the poverty of weavers.

Activity: 3

Question 8:Imagine you are a weaver who saw the events as they unfolded. Write a report on what you saw.

Answer: I have worked very hard to supply the woven cloth in time, but received very little payment than what was agreed to by the contractor. Since, other weavers had also got less payment, on the afternoon of 4th June,

I went along with my partner and other weavers to the contractor’s house for asking for better wages for our weaving.

Our demands were scornfully refused and we were even threatened that no more work would be given to us if we did not work at the same rate as what was paid to us. Some of my fellow weavers got angry at this and broke the windowpanes of the contractor’s house, barged inside and damaged his furniture and crockery.

Some weavers also broke open his store of woven cloth and tore it all up. Seeing this, the contractor ran away from the house with his family to a nearby village, but there also he did not get shelter. Next day, the contractor returned with soldiers from the army, who fired at our group of weavers, killing eleven of us. I was injured in the leg by a bullet and now, I am nursing my wounds as I write this.

Discuss: 6

Question 9:Compare the positions on the question of women’s rights voiced by the three writers cited above. What do they reveal about liberal ideology?

Answer:The liberal politician Carl Welcker, an elected member of the Frank furt Parliament, says that

  • Woman is weaker than man and her sphere is the home where she keeps children and does household duties such as cooking, washing and cleaning, etc.
  • Equality between the sexes or woman and man would only endanger harmony and destroy the dignity of the family.

According to Louise Otto-Peters, a political activist and founder of a woman's journal and a feminist political association, Men who try to gain freedom and liberty for all do not obey this but their untiring efforts are intended for the welfare of only men. She advocated that liberty cannot be divided among the men and women.

An Anonymous writer says that

  • It is injustice to discriminate against women on the basis of gender.
  • The women should not be deprived of the right to vote while an illiterate man has given the right to vote.
  • The above discussion shows that Louise Otto-Peters and the Anonymous writer favor woman on the basis of rights of liberty and equality.
  • The first writer does not favor woman's rights of liberty and equality.

Activity: 4

Question 10:Describe the caricature. How does it represent the relationship between Bismarck and the elected deputies of Parliament? What interpretation of democratic processes is the artist trying to convey?

Answer: The caricature depicts Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany as holding a whip (signifying that he is a ruthless man ruling with an iron hand) while leading the Parliament. The deputies who were elected are afraid of him and so are hiding under their tables. The caricature depicts the dominance of Bismarck over the deputies and how he despised liberalism and parliamentary assemblies. The artist is trying to convey that the democratic process in Germany was very shallow and the roots of constitutionalism were poor.

Activity: 5

Question 11:Look at Fig. 14(a). Do you think that the people living in any of these regions thought of themselves as Italians?

CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 1 (3)

Answer: In 1858, Italy was divided into seven states, with the North being under the Austrian Habsburgs, the centre being ruled by the Pope and the Southern regions being under Spain's domination. Only one state, Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. The Italian language also had not acquired a common form and had many regional and local variations. So people living in these regions, except Sardinia -Piedmont, would not have thought of themselves as Italians.

Question 12:Examine Fig. 14(b). Which was the first region to become a part of unified Italy? Which was the last region to join? In which year did the largest number of states join?

CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 1 (4)

(Video) Class 10 History Chapter 1 | The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Full Chapter


  • The first regions to become a part of unified Italy in 1858 were Savoy Sardinia followed by the Northern states.
  • The last region to join was the Papal State in 1870.
  • The largest number of states joined in 1860.

Activity: 6

Question 13:The artist has portrayed Garibaldi as holding on to the base of the boot, so that the King of Sardinia-Piedmont can enter it from the top. Look at the map of Italy once more. What statement is this caricature making?

CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 1 (5)

Answer:The base of the boot symbolizes the Kingdom of the Two Sicilians, which lay in the southernmost part of the Italian peninsula. Garibaldi had won this kingdom and handed it over to King Victor Emmanuel II. This cartoon signifies the unification of Italy and Garibaldi's role in it.

Activity: 7

Question 14:With the help of the chart in Box 3, identify the attributes of Veit’s Germania and interpret the symbolic meaning of the painting. In an earlier allegorical rendering of 1836, Veit had portrayed the Kaiser’s crown at the place where he has now located the broken chain. Explain the significance of this change.

CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 1 (6)

Answer:The symbolic meaning of the painting is that the German nation has emerged. The female figure of Germania is an allegory of the German nation. All the attributes of the German nation out be seen in the painting as given in the chart. The replacement of the Kaiser’s crown with the broken chain signifies that the German nation is now free from autocratic monarchical rule.

Activity: 8

Question 15:Describe what you see in Fig. 17. What historical events could Hübner be referring to in this allegorical vision of the nation?

CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 1 (7)

Answer:Julius Hübner painted this picture of Germania, allegory of the German -nation, in 1850, 2 years after the national assembly at Frankfurt was rejected by the monarchs. In the foreground of the picture, there are symbols of absolutism and Germania lies before it. This shows that the united hope if German becoming a nation is now shriveled. And the entire nation falls down before the monarchy.

Thus, the Frankfurt parliament being forced to disband, by the monarchs, was the event Hübner is referring to in his painting.

Activity: 9

Question 16:Look once more at Fig. 10. Imagine you were a citizen of Frankfurt in March 1848 and were present during the proceedings of the parliament. How would you

  1. As a man seated in the hall of deputies, and
  2. As a woman observing from the galleries, relate to the banner of Germania hanging from the ceiling?

CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 1 (8)


  1. As a man seated in the hall of deputies, I would relate positively to the banner of Germania, as I would feel all that it symbolized was coming true.
  2. As a woman observing from the galleries, I would consider the banner to depict the truth only partially Women had participated with men equally in the struggle for constitutionalism with national unification, but they were denied suffrage rights during elections to the National Assembly, Women were only admitted to the assembly as passive citizens and observers.

Write in brief

Question 17:Write a note on:

  1. Giuseppe Mazzini
  2. Count Camillo de Cavour
  3. The Greek war of independence
  4. Frankfurt Parliament
  5. The role of women in nationalist struggles.


  1. Giuseppe Mazzin:

    Giuseppe Mazzini was born in Genoa in 1807, and he became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. As a young man of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He subsequently founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states. Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind.

  2. Count Camillo de Cavour:

    Chief Minister Cavour who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the fray.

  3. The Greek war of independence:

    An event that mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe was the Greek war of independence. Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks which began in 1821. Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many West Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture.

  4. Frankfurt Parliament:

    In the German regions a large number of political associations whose members were middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly. On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul. They drafted a constitution for the German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament. When the deputies offered the crown on these terms to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly.

    (Video) The Rise of Nationalism in Europe (Class 10 History) Chapter 1

  5. The role of women in nationalist struggles:
    • Artistic representations of the French Revolution show men and women participating equally in the movement.
    • Liberty is personified as the women.
    • Liberal nationalism propounded the idea of universal suffrage, leading to women’s active participation in nationalist movements in Europe.
    • Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers.
    • They had taken part in political meetings and demonstrations.
    • In France about sixty women’s clubs came up in different French cities.
    • The most famous was the society of Revolutionary and Republican women.
    • One of their main demands was to have same political rights as men had. They were, however, denied suffrage rights during the election to the Assembly.
    • Although women had actively participated in nationalist struggles, they were given little or no political rights, an example being the Frankfurt Parliament in the Church of St. Paul where women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.

Question 18:What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?

Answer:The following steps were taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people:

  • The ideas of the fatherland (la patrie) and the citizen (le citoyen) were introduced.
  • A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the earlier royal standard.
  • The Estates General was renamed as National Assembly.
  • New hymns were composed, oaths were taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
  • A centralised administrative system was established.
  • Uniform laws for all citizens were formulated.
  • Internal custom duties and dues were abolished.
  • A uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
  • French, as it was written and spoken in Paris, became the common language of the nation. Regional dialects were discouraged.
  • It was decided that the French nation would liberate the peoples of Europe from despotism, and help other peoples to become nations.

Question 19:Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?

Answer:Female allegories were invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the nation. In France, she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.

Similarly, Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.

Question 20:Briefly trace the process of German unification.

Answer:After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away from an association with democracy and revolution. Nationalist sentiments were often mobilized by conservatives for promoting state power and achieving political domination over Europe. Thus, Germany and Italy were unified as nation-states as mentioned below:

  • Napoleon’s administrative measures had created out of countless principalities a confederation of 39 states. Each of these possessed its own currency and weights and measures.
    Such conditions were obstacles to economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes.
  • In 1834, a customs union or Zollvere it was established. It allowed free trade among its members. It created a real national unity in economic matters, at a time when Germany was politically not united. A wave of economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments.
  • As a result of 1848 revolution in France, in Germany where a nation state did not exist the men and women of the liberal middle classes raised the demands for constitutionalism and national unification.
  • In May 1848, a large number of political associations decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly at Frankfurt and drafted a constitution for a German Nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament. The offer was made to Prussian King but it was rejected by him. Thus, the liberal initiative to nation building failed.
  • Thereafter the task of unification of Germany was taken over by Prussia and its chief minister, Otto von Bismarck who was architect of modern Germany.
  • Bismarck followed a policy of‘blood and iron’. He carried out his plans with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
  • In 1862, Bismarck reorganised the Prussion army and improved training in war. In 1864 he constructed an alliance with Austria to fight Denmark over Denmark’s southern provinces of Schleiswig while Austria administered Holstein. Bismarck provoked a conflict with Austria over an unrelated border dispute and in the subsequent Seven Weeks War, Prussia defeated Austria. The peace treaty transferred Holstein to Prussia and forced Austria to officially remove itself from all German affairs.
  • Next was war with France. In 1870, Bismarck forged a note from the French ambassador, implying that the ambassador had insulted the Prussian King. After he leaked this letter to both populations, there was a cry for war. At this stage, the southern provinces rallied to Prussia’s side. In 1870 France declared war on Prussia but was defeated. As a result of war, Alsace Lorraine was transferred to Germany.
  • Ultimately in January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, The Prussian King William I was proclaimed German Emperor. Thus, unification of Germany was completed. This demonstrated the dominance of Prussian state power. It was victory of Bismarck’s policy of ‘blood and iron’ and it tended to foster militarism and authoritarianism in Germany.The new state placed a strong emphasis on modernising the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems in Germany. Prussian measures and practices often became a model for the rest of Germany.

Question 21:What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?

Answer:Within the wide area of territory that came under his control, Napoleon set about introducing many of the reforms that he had already introduced in France. Through a return to monarchy Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.

The Civil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control. In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed new-found freedom.

Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realize that uniform law, standardized weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.


Question 22:Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?

Answer: The 1848 revolution of the liberals mean the revolution led by the educated middle classes of Europe. Events of February 1848, in France brought about the abdication of the monarchy and a republic based on universal male franchise was formed. In Europe, the educated middle class made up of industrialists, businessmen and professionals played a lead role in nationalist movement. They were imbibed by liberal ideas and socially, demanded freedom of individuals, freedom of press and equality of all before law.

Politically, they emphasized the concept of government by consent. Since the French Revolution, these revolutionaries stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges and emphasized a constitution and representative government through parliament. They also stressed the inviolability of private property. In . the economic sphere, they stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on trade.

Question 23:Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.

Answer:In Europe, culture made significant contribution in strengthening nationalistic feelings.

  1. Romanticism was a cultural movement, which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Criticizing the glorification of reason and science, it made effort to create a sense of ashared collective heritage, a common cultural past as the basis of a nation.
  2. Folk culture such as folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances popularized the true spirit of the nation and united common people.
  3. Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. A large number of priests and bishops, however, used Polish for church gatherings and all religious instructions. So, they were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as punishment. Thus, the use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance. The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audience who were mostly illiterate.

Question 24:Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.

Answer: Italy:

The dedication, contribution and effort of the three great leaders: Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi helped in the unification of Italy. Italy had a long history of political fragmentation. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multinational Habsburg Empire. During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house.

The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the pope and the southern regions were under the domination of Bourbon Kings of Spain. During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini sought to put together a program for a unitary Italian Republic. He also formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals. The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 meant that unification of Italy could be possible through war under the king Victor Emmanuel II.Victor Emmanuel’s chief minister Cavour supported him wholeheartedly in this task. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat but he led the movement to unify the Italian regions.

He made a tactical diplomatic alliance with France and succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Apart from regular troops a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Siciles, and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasantry in order to drive out the Spanish rulers. Finally, in 1861king Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.


(Video) Rise of Nationalism in Europe Full Chapter | Class 10 History Chapter 1 | Shubham Pathak

The Frankfurt Parliament tried its best for the unification of Germany under the leadership of King Wilhelm IV of Prussia but it failed and made it clear that German unification had to come through combined effort of monarchy and military supported by large landowners of Prussia. From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Otto von Bismarck, the Chief Minister of Prussia, was the architect of this process.

He wanted to achieve his aim by expanding Prussia into Germany. He reached his goal with the help of Prussian army and the bureaucracy. Bismarck fought three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France which ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.

On January 18, 1871, an assembly comprising the princes of the German states, representatives of the army, important Prussian ministers including the Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck gathered in the unheated Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Verailles to proclaim the new German Empire headed by Kaisar William I of Prussia.

Question 25:How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?


  1. In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution.
  2. There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.
  3. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.
  4. In 1688, the English parliament seized power from the monarchy and became the instrument through which a nation state, with England at its centre, came to be forged.
  5. The Act of Union [1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
  6. Though the Irish Catholics were against a union with England as the English helped the protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.

Thus, the emergence of United Kingdom as a strong and democratic state was the result of a parliamentary action and not of a revolution or war.

Question 26:Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?

Answer: Though all countries accepted the idea of nation-states as natural and universal, the people everywhere developed their own specific variety of nationalism.

The Balkans was the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe. It presents a unique example of how the rebellious nationalists struggled to win back their long- lost independence.

The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatica, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro. The inhabitants belonged to the ethnic group were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans had been under the rule of Ottoman Empire since long. Due to the strategic position of the Balkan region, imperial powers of Europe wanted to extend their control over the region.

So they competed with one another that resulted in intense conflict among these powers. The domination of other powers separated the people of the Balkans from each other who belonged to one ethnic group. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive. The Balkan region, thus, became an area of intense conflicts leading to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.


Question 27:Find out more about nationalist symbols in countries outside Europe. For one or two countries, collect examples of pictures, posters or music that are symbols of nationalism. How are these different from European examples?

Answer:Some of the nationalist symbols of the countries other than European countries are as under:

S.No. National Symbols America Russia China India
1. Flag 50 stars on blue color background surrounded by red and white strips 3 horizontal strips of white, blue and red color Red flag with one big and five small yellow color stars 3 strips of orange, white and green color with chakra in the middle (white) strip.
2. Bird Eagle Bald Eagle Double head(Bice phallic) Eagle Chinese Dragon Peacock
3. Flower The Rose Camomile(sun flower variety) Peony The Lotus
4. Anthem The star spangled banner by Francis Scott Key Hymn of Russian Federation by Sergey Mikhalkov The March of Volunteers Jana, Gana, Mana by Rabindra Nath Tagore
5. Music Patriotic God Bless America by Irving Berlin Grom pobedy, raz davaysay! by Gatril Derzhavin
  1. The plum blossom
  2. The East in Red
Vande Mataram by Bankin Chandra Chattopadhyay

These nationalist symbols are very different from the symbols of European countries in the manner that they manifest nationalist sentiments of their respective countries.

Images showing the difference between the flag of Europeans and others:

CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 1 (9)
CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 1 (10)


What is the first chapter of class 10 history? ›

NCERT Book Class 10 Social Science (History) Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe.

Which is the most important chapter in history class 10? ›

CBSE Class 10 History Notes
  • Chapter 1 - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe.
  • Chapter 2 - Nationalism in India.
  • Chapter 3 - The Making of a Global World.
  • Chapter 4 - The Age of Industrialisation.
  • Chapter 5 - Print Culture and the Modern World.

What is a nation-state class 10 history CH 1? ›

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Notes Social Science History Chapter 1. Nation (State): A large number of people of mainly common descent, language, history, inhabiting a territory bounded by defined limits and forming a society under one government is called a nation.

What is the summary of the rise of nationalism in Europe class 10? ›

During the nineteenth century, the idea of nationalism made changes in Political and mental world of Europe. French Revolution of 1789 was the first clear expression of nationalism. Ruled France from 1799 to 1815. Gained absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul.

Which is the hardest chapter in SST class 10? ›

The most difficult chapter is Heredity and Evolution, but it also has the most weightage.

Which chapters are removed from CBSE 10th history? ›

CBSE Class 10th Social Science Deleted Portion of Syllabus for Term 2 Exam 2022
Unit 1: India And Contemporary World II (History)
ChaptersDeleted Portion
Chapter 3: Democracy & Diversity Chapter 4: Gender, Religion and Caste Chapter 5: Popular Struggles and movements Chapter 8: Challenges to DemocracyFull Chapters Removed
11 more rows
13 May 2022

Is class 10 marks very important? ›

They also form an important part of resume and act as an indicator of a student's academic performance. Many prestigious colleges and universities assign separate points to class 10th marks and heavily rely on them while granting admission to the students. Hence, class 10 is a career shaper, a game changer.

Is class 10 very important? ›

In the current education scenario, many prestigious colleges and universities assign extra points to class 10th marks while granting admission to students. Hence, a good score in class 10 board exams can actually acts as a career shaper in the life of a student.

Is class 10 history tough? ›

Many students find the Class 10 History chapters tough at the beginning as the syllabus is vast.

What is the age of revolution 1830 to 1848? ›

The period between 1830 and 1848 was marked by a lot of tensions and turmoil in Europe. Europe had witnessed the dramatic rise of two philosophies, liberalism and conservatism. The liberal nationalists or the educated middle class planned ways to overthrow monarchy and bring in a government of the people.

What was Zollverein Class 10? ›

The Zolloverein was a German customs union that was founded in 1834 during the Prussian rule. It formulated many rules for free trade and economic cooperation among the German states. It abolished the tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to only two.

What is the difference between nation-state and nation? ›

Nation is a large body of people sharing a common origin, history, culture, ethnicity, or language while nation state is a system of organization where people with a common identity live inside a country with firm borders and a single government. Thus, this is the main difference between nation and nation state.

How can I study SST for class 10? ›

Study alternate days : Don't study all four Social Science subjects on the same day. If you are studying history on Monday then choose another subject like Physics or Chemistry with it. Then study Geography with Maths the next day and so on.

Who was Frederic Sorrieu class 10? ›

Answer: Frederic Sorrieu was a French painter and lithographer who was born in 1824. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and his work includes engraver, printmaker, and draughtsman. In 1848, he created a four-print series depicting his vision of a world populated by democratic and socialist republics.

Which class is harder 10 or 9? ›

Generally, the difficulty level of Class 9 and Class 11 will be much higher than Class 10 and Class 12 respectively.

Is 10 CBSE difficult? ›

According to the initial reactions received from the students, the CBSE Class 10th paper was Moderate to easy. Some of the students found it difficult though. Tannu Choudhary, a student of S.D. Public Secondary School, Delhi said that the paper was easy except one or two questions.

Is CBSE Class 10 hard? ›

Ans: No, CBSE Class 10 board exams are not tough if you start early preparation, follow NCERT books and solutions, and give plenty of time to revision.

Is NCERT enough for 10th boards? ›

Are NCERTs Enough For 10th, 12th Board Exams? In a word, No! But only for some subjects like physics, chemistry and mathematics or biology, which is why NCERT itself has brought additional books consisting of numerical problems called NCERT exemplar books.

Will CBSE delete portions for 2022? ›

In the CBSE Class 10 Science Syllabus 2022-2023, the board has made a deletion of about 30% part of the full syllabus. Certain chapters and topics have been removed from the syllabus to release burden and ease out exam preparations for students.

How many hours did 10th class student study? ›

Daily Time – table for Class 10th students. As stated above, a student must study for 7 – 10 hours daily. So, a time – table is required to keep the student going i.e. a proper time – table will help in the timely completion of the syllabus so that ample time is left for revision.

Is a 90% class 10 good? ›

Ans: A 90 % and above score is considered a good percentage in class 10th. Q.

IS 60 is good in 10th class? ›

60% is a decent percentage but not really good according to class 10 board result standard.So you should not face much problem to get a decent college for yourself.

Is 76 a good percentage? ›

Tutor for kids as well as adults. Yes, It is not that bad. However, To join any competitive exam you have to obtain 60% (somewhere it is less).

Is 82 a good percentage in 10th class? ›

A score of 82 percent is quite good. Now go ahead and do whatever you want.

Is 95 a good percentage? ›

95% marks in aggregate are abnormal. It may be natural for a student to get 95% marks in one or two subject, which is/are his/her favourite, but getting 95% marks in aggregate is abnormal.

Is 10th marks important for MBBS? ›

No. Your NEET eligibility is decided based on your marks in 12th and more predominantly in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. But while filling the NEET application form your 10th passing certificate or 10th marks sheet should be uploaded.

How can I get full marks in SST? ›

Social science is an interesting and easy to score subjects that can help you gain good marks.
Tips To Score Good Marks In Class 10 Social Science Examination
  1. Go through the heading of the answer. ...
  2. Always make the time table according to the topics. ...
  3. Do not start with a new chapter on the day of the exam.
27 Nov 2020

Which is the hardest subject after 10th? ›

Read More. This blog on Top 10 Toughest Course in India talks about the courses that are actually some of the toughest for students to take up. Let's get started with the blog!
Let's learn about them step by step.
  • Computer Science. ...
  • Chartered Accountancy. ...
  • Medicine. ...
  • Engineering. ...
  • MBA. ...
  • Architecture. ...
  • Psychology. ...
  • Civil Services.

What was the biggest revolution? ›

Top 10 Notable Revolutions
  • #8: The Chinese Communist Revolution. ...
  • #7: The Young Turk Revolution. ...
  • #6: The Haitian Revolution. ...
  • #5: The Iranian Revolution. (1978 – 1979) ...
  • #4: The Cuban Revolution. (1953 – 1959) ...
  • #3: The October Revolution. (1917) ...
  • #2: The American Revolution. (1765 – 1783) ...
  • #1: The French Revolution. (1789 – 1799)

What was the first revolution? ›

The earliest revolutionary wave in modern history was the Atlantic Revolutions, which began with the American Revolution of 1776 and, in 1789, swept over to France. Inspired by the idea of liberty, revolutionaries fought against aristocratic and colonial rule.

Why is 1848 called The Age of Revolution? ›

Revolutions of 1848, series of republican revolts against European monarchies, beginning in Sicily and spreading to France, Germany, Italy, and the Austrian Empire. They all ended in failure and repression and were followed by widespread disillusionment among liberals.

Who was Bismarck Class 10? ›

Otto von Bismarck was a Prussian politician who became Germany's first-ever chancellor, a position in which he served from 1871 to 1890. Through a series of wars, he unified 39 individual states into one German nation in 1871.

What is Prussian Zollverein? ›

Zollverein, (German: “Customs Union”) German customs union established in 1834 under Prussian leadership. It created a free-trade area throughout much of Germany and is often seen as an important step in German reunification.

What countries were Prussia? ›

Though itself one of Germany's many states, the kingdom of Prussia was comprised of: West Prussia, East Prussia, Brandenburg (including Berlin), Saxony, Pomerania, the Rhineland, Westphalia, non-Austrian Silesia, Lusatia, Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, and Hesse-Nassau.

What are the 4 essential features of a state? ›

Characteristics of a state: Population, Territory, Sovereignty, and Government.

What was the first nation-state? ›

Nation-state building

Although France after the French Revolution (1787–99) is often cited as the first nation-state, some scholars consider the establishment of the English Commonwealth in 1649 as the earliest instance of nation-state creation.

Is India a country or nation? ›

India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world.
Republic of India Bhārat Gaṇarājya (see other local names)
Recognised national languagesNone
51 more rows

How can I get 95 in Class 10? ›

Practice last 10 year CBSE papers, 10 sample papers Solving past year papers help you understand what sort of questions are asked and be prepared for them. Likewise, CBSE sample papers make your speed and accuracy better. 3. Study subjects that require memorisation in morning There is no best time of day to study.

Is SST exam tough? ›

While some students found the exam very easy, others said it was moderately difficult.

What was Sorrieu utopian vision? ›

In Sorrieu's utopian vision, the peoples of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags, and national costumes. Sorrieu created the image to unify the disintegrated states into a nation state under a democratic constitution.

What is utopian vision Class 10? ›

'Utopian vision' means that it is depicting something idealistic. The French artist F Sorrieu was visualizing a dream of a world made up of nations (all of them did not exist as nations at the time that these prints were made).

What was the dream of Frederic Sorrieu? ›

In 1848, Frdric Sorrieu, a French artist, prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of democratic and social Republics, as he called them.

Who was Frederic sorry? ›

Frédéric Sorrieu (French: [fʁedeʁik sɔʁjø]; 17 January 1807 – 26 September 1887) was a French engraver, printmaker, and draughtsman. He was notable for his works testifying the liberal and nationalist revolutions in France and in Europe.

Who was Duke Metternich Class 10? ›

Answer: Duke Metternich was the Austrian chancellor and was the host of Congress of Vienna in 1815. He was a great diplomat and one of the ' powerful political figures during that period. He represented the conservative forces of Europe.

What was the motto of Frederic Sorrieu? ›

Frederic Sorrieu was a French printmaker and an engraver who visualized “The Dream of Worldwide Democratic and the Social Republic” in 1848. His painting is based on the theme that the world is made up of democratic and social republics.

What are the chapters in class 10 history? ›

The chapters which are present in the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History are as below:
  • The Rise of Nationalism in Europe.
  • Nationalism in India.
  • The Making of a Global World.
  • The Age of Industrialisation.
  • Print Culture and the Modern World.

How many chapters are there in history class 10th? ›

3: How many chapters are there in the NCERT books for Class 10 History ? Ans: There are 5 chapters in NCERT 10th History textbook.

What is the first chapter of Class 10 Civics? ›

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 – Power-sharing contains the solutions to the exercises given in the Civics book – Democratic Politics-II. In this chapter, students will mainly find questions related to the vertical division of power-sharing among different levels of government.

What is the syllabus of history class 10? ›

NCERT Class 10th History Syllabus
Events and ProcessesNationalism in India
Livelihoods, Economies and SocietiesThe Making of a Global World
The Age of Industrialisation
Everyday Life Culture and PoliticsPrint Culture and Modern World
1 more row
12 Aug 2022

Is Ncert enough for Class 10 boards? ›

Are NCERTs Enough For 10th, 12th Board Exams? In a word, No! But only for some subjects like physics, chemistry and mathematics or biology, which is why NCERT itself has brought additional books consisting of numerical problems called NCERT exemplar books.

How can I remember my class 10 history? ›

Go through the history chapters from the NCERT Textbook and make notes and revise these notes the next day. CBSE board strictly follows NCERT book and over the years every single question has been from NCERT book so, you must read it.

Is Class 10 Science hard? ›

"The CBSE Class 10th Science paper neither was not difficult.
Question WeightageNo. of QuestionsDifficulty Level
Section A - 2 marks question7Easy
Section B - 3 marks question6Easy
Section C - 4 marks question2Moderately
Total15Average to easy
10 May 2022

How many hours did 10th class student study? ›

Daily Time – table for Class 10th students. As stated above, a student must study for 7 – 10 hours daily. So, a time – table is required to keep the student going i.e. a proper time – table will help in the timely completion of the syllabus so that ample time is left for revision.

Which chapters are removed from Ncert? ›

Notable topics including references to the 2022 Gujarat Riots, the Cold War, and Mughal courts have been deleted from the updated Class 12 NCERT Book. Topics like Industrial Revolution from the Class 11 Textbook and a few Dalit writers from the Class 7 Textbook have been dropped as well.

What is civil war in SST class 10? ›

A civil war is a violent conflict between opposing groups within a country that becomes so intense that it appears like a war. Due to the violent conflict between both these ethnic groups thousands of people of both the communities have been killed.

How many total chapters are there in class 10 SST? ›

Social Science Class 10 CBSE – India & The Contemporary World – II – Students will get to know all about Industrialisation, Nationalism, and cultural and political life in this textbook. It has only 5 chapters. You must read them thoroughly as it has very important topics.

What is the name of chapter 1 in history class 9? ›

CBSE Class 9 History Notes Chapter 1 - The French Revolution.

What is the syllabus of SST class 10 2022? ›

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Revised Syllabus 2022-23
Max. Marks: 40
SI. No.UnitsNo. of Periods
IIndia and the Contemporary World -II60
IIContemporary India – II55
IIIDemocratic Politics – II50
2 more rows

What is the syllabus of SST term 2 class 10th? ›

SST Class 10 Term 2 Syllabus 2022
Social Science Term 2 Syllabus 2022
UnitsNameNo. of Periods
IIContemporary India – I19
IIIDemocratic Politics – I14
2 more rows

Is Class 10 basic maths tough? ›

“The 'Basic Mathematics” section was as per the NCERT pattern and students did not find it tough. All three sections in the paper were easy to moderate on the difficulty level. All questions required conceptual based understanding. Students could expect good marks,” Anjani Kumar Rai, VidyaGyan School, Bulandshahr said.


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