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Nordstrom, K.F., Jackson, N. L., and Tiefenbacher, J. P. 1990. Threats to beach resources and park boundaries caused by shoreline migration in an urban estuarine park. Environmental Management 14:195-202.
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c = coastal
m = marine
Sponsored session: Political Ecology of Marine Resources I (Sponsored by Coastal and Marine and Socialist Geography SG)
m B. Mansfield: The Social Construction of Marine Space: The Pacific Groundfish Theory
c B. Walker: Women with Mango, Women without Fish: Engendering Development in Polynesia
c X. Augerot: Competing Conceptions of Salmon Management in the North Pacific
m C. Trist: Contesting the Reserve: The Politics of Marine Science in St. Lucia
Sponsored session: Political Ecology of Marine Resources II (Sponsored by Coastal and Marine and Socialist Geography SG)
c K. Nichols: International Coastal Management Politics: Discourse, Practice, and Implications in Sri Lanka
m T. Foran: Can No-Take Marine Reserves Help a Troubled Pacific Fishery?
m H. Glaesel: The Expansion of Rogue Technologies in East Africa's Marine Environment
m L. Davis: Shifting Resources, Shifting Bodies: Fishing for Constructions of Space in the Pacific Northwest
Sponsored session: Coastal Geomorphology I (Sponsored by Geomorphology and Coastal and Marine SG)
c M. Foote, D. Horn: High-Resolution Water Surface Measurements in the Swash Zone
c J. Ren, N. Psuty: Changes in the Sediment Budget at the Critical Zone, Sandy Hook, NJ
c E. Ferrell, D. Sherman: Mass Flux Profiles in Aeolian Saltation Systems
c P. Gares, N. Psuty: Spatial Variation in Dune Response to a Coastal Storm
c N. Jackson, K. Nordstrom, V. Spalding: Classification of a Developed Coastal Barrier
Sponsored session: Coastal Geomorphology II (Sponsored by Coastal and Marine and Geomorphology SG)
c S. Namikas: A Field Investigation of Aeolian Saltation
c B. Andrews: GIS Analysis of Topographic Change in Outer Banks Dunes
c J. Wang, D. Sherman: Field Experiment on Beach Cusp Development at Malin Island, Ireland
c B. Bender, T. Terich: The Holocene Geomorphic and Stratigraphic Evolution of Cape Showalter, Washington
c J. Rahn: Fifty Years of Coastal Barrier Island Change in the Florida Panhandle
Sponsored session: Coastal Geomorphology III (Sponsored by Coastal and Marine and Geomorphology SG)
c P. Chaney, G. Stone: Wind and Nearshore Dynamics Associated with Soundside Erosion: West Ship Island, Mississippi
c T. Middleton: Impact of Nearshore Processes on a Microtidal Lagoonal Beach: Roanoke Island, NC
c V. Spalding: Shoreline Armoring Effects on Coastal Geomorphology and Meiofauna in Raritan Bay, NJ
c M. Craghan: Geomorphically Immaterial-Estuarine Flooding in Built Areas
c J. Dobosiewicz: The Vulnerability of an Urban Estuary to Coastal Flooding
c A. Yaari: Modeling Potential Wind-Wave Erosion in the Sacramento Delta
Other session: Critical Perspectives on Neo-liberal Approaches to Development and Conservation
m G. Leddy: Trade-Based Politics and the Failure of an International Oceans Regime
c A. Clapp: The Obstacles to Market-Oriented Conservation: Resource Cycles in Fishing and Forestry
Sponsored session: Coastal Geomorphology I (Sponsored by Geomorphology and Coastal and Marine SG)
c H. Lannon, J. Mossa: Erosion of Estuarine Beaches, Franklin County, FL
c P. Chaney, G. Stone: Cold Front Dynamics and Impacts: West Ship Island, MS
c A. Yaari: Modeling Potential Wind-Wave Erosion in the Sacramento Delta
c M. Taylor, M. Byrnes, R. McBride: Geomorphology, Physical Processes, and Holocene Response
c J. Rahn: The Geomorphology of Florida's Spur and Groove Coral Reefs
Sponsored session: Coastal Geomorphology II (Sponsored by Geomorphology and Coastal and Marine SG)
c D. Sherman: Bedforms in Rip Current Channels
c J. Wang, D. Sherman: Generations of Beach Cusps on Gravel Beaches: An Evaluation of Edge Wave and Self-Organization Models
c J. Yi, B. Baller, D. Sherman: Event-Based Estimates of Shear Velocity in Unsteady Aeolian Systems
c P. Gares, R. Beachley: Topographic Changes in Outer Banks Dunes
c E. Carter: Anastasia Island Historical Subsurface Mapping Project
c P. Hesp: Parabolic Dune Evolution, Morphology, and Dynamics - West Coasts of New Zealand and Australia
Sponsored session: Geographic Education in Coastal Marine Geography (Sponsored by Coastal and Marine and Geography Education SG)
m D. Zeigler: Marine and Coastal Geography: Opportunities for Curriculum Development
c D. Zeigler: Marine and Coastal Geography: Opportunities for Curriculum Development
c J. Mossa: Participatory Teaching in Coastal Geography
Sponsored session: Political Economy of Marine Space I (Sponsored by Coastal and Marine, Political Geography, and Socialist Geography SG)
m P. Steinberg: Beyond Epistemology: Political Economy and a Reconstituted Ocean Geography
m K. Nichols: Community Impacts and Response to a Sri Lankan Marine Sanctuary
m B. Walker: Sisterhood, Seine-Nets, and Starkist: Gendered Politics in Ghana's Marine Fishery
m J. Rodrigue, Maritime Transportation and Economic Integration: The Pacific-Asian Environment
Sponsored session: Political Economy of Marine Space II (Sponsored by Coastal and Marine, Political Geography, and Socialist Geography SG)
c C. Trist: Floating Capital, Contested Conservation: Competing Construction on Soufriere Bay, St. Lucia
c J. Gulick: Planning Organization: Moving Container Freight or Moving People?
c C. Comtois: The Role and Function of Ports in Japan
m K. Dow: Marine Transportation Risks and Rights of Passage
Sponsored session: Ecological and Geomorphic Impacts of Hurricanes I (Sponsored by Biogeography and Coastal Marine SG)
m G. Stone, C. Armbruster, J. Dingler: Morphological Signature of Severe Hurricanes: Northern Gulf of Mexico
c M. Fearn, K. Liu: Hurricane Opal's Sedimentary Signature in West Florida's Coastal Lakes
c J. Donnely, T. Webb: Determination of Holocene Hurricane Frequency in Southern New England Marshes
Sponsored session: Ecological and Geomorphic Impacts of Hurricanes II (Sponsored by Biogeography and Coastal Marine SG)
c D. Reed: Role of Hurricanes in Supplying Sediment to Louisiana Coastal Marshes
c D. Cahoon, J. Day, D. Reed: Do Hurricanes and Other Major Storms Compress Coastal Marsh Soils?
c S. Fournet, D. Cahoon: Local, Watershed, and Regional Gradients of Hurricane Andrew Sediment Deposits
c G. Guntenspergen: Response of the Louisiana Coastal Landscape to Hurricane Andrew
Sponsored session: Geomorphology and Coastal and Marine SG: Coastal Geomorphology
c R. Arnott, D. Langham: The Role of Softening in Erosion on a Cohesive Coast
c D. Horn, A. Baird: The GRIST (Groundwater Interaction with Swash and Tides) Model
c P. Chaney, G. Stone: Soundside Erosion and Winter Cold Fronts: West Ship Island Mississippi
c E. Farrell: The Relationship Between Mean Grain Size and Foreshore Slope for Derrymore Spit, Tralee, Co. Kerry, Republic of Ireland
c B. Greenwood, T. Aagaard, J. Nielson: Tidal Influence on Sediment Flux Within a Nearshore Bar-Rip System
Sponsored session: Geomorphology and Coastal and Marine SG: Coastal Aeolian Systems
c P. Gares, D. Sherman, D. Jackson: Ripple Morphology on Variable Beach Topography
c D. Sherman, B. Bauer, P. Gares, D. Jackson: Aeolian Sand Transport, Castroville, CA
c M. Lampe, P. Gares: Turbulent Air Flow over Coastal Dunes
c S. McCann, W. Hales: Vegetation of the Coastal Dunes of Nova Scotia, Canada
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine Geography SG: Coastal Hazards
c N. Jackson, M. Bruno, K. Nordstrom, J. Dobosiewicz: Evolution of a Developed Coast
c R. Daniels, , T. Beatty, V. Gornitz: A Physical and Socioeconomic Index of Coastal Vulnerability
c H. Lannon: The Effects of the March 1993 Storm on Property Values and Ownership Patterns in Keaton Beach and Dekle Beach, Taylor County, FL
c W. Svekla, N. Psuty, P. Gares: Alongshore Variation in Dune Erosion
c M. Tollinger: Perception of Elusive Hazards: Global Warming and Sea Level Rise
Sponsored session: Geomorphology and Coastal and Marine SG: Coastal Plain Rivers
c J. Konwinski, J. Mossa: Flood Geomorphology of the Suwanee River at Branford, FL
c P. Jacobs, J. Hyatt: Flood-Induced Sinkholes and Their Volumetric Significance to Landscape Evolution of the Dougherty Plain, GA
c M. Wyrick, D. Butler: Historical Channel Changes Along the Lower Roanoke River, NC
c D. Perry: Baldcypress Habitats and Distribution in Channelized Coastal Plain Streams
c J. Mossa: Development of Anastomosing River Patterns, Gulf Coastal Plain
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine Geography SG: Coastal Systems
c N. Psuty, D. O'Grady: Spatial Sediment Associations, Great Egg Harbor Estuary, NJ
c M. Kearney, J. Townshend, A. Rogers, W. Lawrence: Assessing Coastal Marsh Status in Chesapeake Bay Using TM Imagery
m M. Breedlove: An Analysis of the Influence of Substrate Geometry on Coral Reef Fish Populations: The Textual-Discontinuity Hypothesis
m D. Wright, A. Bobbitt, C. Fox: Marine Geography at Work: Adventures with a Seagoing GIS
Other session: Maritime Transport
m J. Rodrigue: Maritime Fields: A New Geography of Maritime Transportation
c J. Starr: Baltimore's Seagirt Marine Terminal: Container Facility with Everything but Ships
c T. Pitts: Seaport Competition in the Intermodal Age: A Typology of US Container Ports
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine SG: R.W.G. Carter Memorial Symposium I: Morphodynamics and Maintenance of Coarse Clastic and Cohesive Coastal Systems
c J. Orford, S. Jennings: Life-Term Developments of Gravel-Dominated Coastal Barriers
c R. Arnott, J. Ollerhead: Erosion of Till on a Cohesive Nearshore Profile
c P. Lowry: Influence of Barrier Height on the Stability of Gravel Beaches
c R. Taylor, D. Forbes, D. Frobel, J. Shaw: Longshore Morphological Variability in the Development of a Rapidly-Migrating Swash-Aligned Gravel Barrier, Story Head, Southeastern Canada
c T. Terich, P. McKay: Gravel Barrier Morphology: Olympic National Park, WA
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine SG: R.W.G. Carter Memorial Symposium II: Coastal Management: Problems and Mitigation
c J. Hardisty, H. Rouse: Monitoring, Modeling, and Management for the Coastal Environment
m I. Eliot, N. Siragusa: Site Selection for an Artificial Surfing Reef
c T. Healy: A Comprehensive Method for Determination of Development Setback/Coastal Hazard Zone Lines for Open Dune Coasts
c S. Shabica, L. Nakashima: Wetlands Sedimentation at Cumberland Island National Seashore, GA
c J. Shulmeister, R. Kirk: Application of a Combined Process and Quaternary Geomorphology Investigation to Modern Environmental Change: A New Zealand Coastal Example
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine SG: R.W.G. Carter Memorial Symposium III: Large-Scale Coastal Dynamics and Behavior
c R. Devoy, C. Delaney: Relative Sea-Level and Other Sedimentary Data from Western Ireland as Indicators of Coastal Process Change
c G. Stone, F. Stapor: A Sediment Transport Model for the Northeast Gulf Coast: Morgan Point, AL, to Apalachicola, FL
c P. Sanderson, I. Eliot, C. Pattiaratchi: Shoreline Salients on the Coast of Western Australia
c B. Hegge, I. Eliot, J. Hsu: Sheltered Sandy Beaches of Southwestern Australia
c J. Grymes, G. Stone: Sea-state and Climatology of Hurricane Andrew and Morphological Impacts Along the South-Central Louisiana Coast
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine SG: R.W.G. Carter Memorial Symposium IV: Shoreface/Nearshore Fluid Dynamics and Sediment Transport
c B. Greenwood: New Waves on Old Beaches: Experiments on Sediment Transport and Morphodynamics
c N. Psuty, M. Craghan: Mobility/Stability of the Beach Haven Sand Ridge
c J. Allen, N. Psuty, B. Bauer, R. Carter: Nearshore Fluid Motion in a Beach Cusp
c N. Jackson: Profile Response to Strong Onshore Winds on a Mesotidal Beach
c P. Osborne, C. Vincent: Bedform Dynamics and Suspended Sediment Response on a Macro-Tidal Beach
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine SG: R.W.G. Carter Memorial Symposium V: Aeolian Transport in Coastal Systems
c B. Bauer, R. Arnott, D. Sherman, N. Jackson, K. Nordstrom, D. Proosdij, J. Ollerhead, J. McCloskey: Interdeterminacy in Aeolian Transport Predictions for Beaches
c P. Gares, B. Bauer, D. Sherman, K. Nordstrom, R. Arnott: Spatial Variations in Sediment Size and Moisture Across a Beach
c K. Nordstrom, R. Arnott, P. Gares, B. Bauer, D. Sherman, R. Carter, D. Jackson: Offshore Aeolian Transport Across a Beach Carrick Finn Strand, Ireland
c D. Sherman, R. Taylor, G. Stone: Coastal Environments: A Visual Tribute to R.W.G. (Bill) Carter
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine SG and GIS SG: GIS Applications in Coastal Wetland and Marine Environments
c R. Canessa, C. Keller: Evaluating Data Quality for a Coastal GIS
c C. Keller, R. Gowan: Blue Print and Feasibility Assessment for a Controlled Sewage Release System to Minimize Environmental Impact for Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
c L. Handley: Coastal Louisiana Wetland Habitat Change, 1956-1988
c T. Tremblay, W. White: Wetland Trend Analysis in the Galveston Bay Estuary System, TX
c J. Gritzner: Defining Wetland Systems in the Prairie Pothole Region of SD
Other session: Coastal Processes and Conservation
c D. Karinshak, D. Porter: Utilizing Large-Scale Remote Sensing Imagery for Monitoring Human Impacts on a Localized Coastal Estuary
Other session: Technology and Transportation Geography
c J. Starr, B. Slack: U.S. Naval Ports in an Era of Change
Sponsored session: Hazards, Water Resources and Coastal and Marine SG: Perspectives on Emergency Management
c E. Baker: Progress in Hurricane Evacuation Preparedness in the United States
c D. Godschaulk: Disasters, Mitigation and Windows of Opportunity
c J. Pine: Computer Applications in Emergency Management
Sponsored session: Cultural Ecology and Coastal and Marine SG: People, Wildlife and Wetlands
c R. Doughty, B. Paramanter: Wetland Perceptions in an Historical and Cross-cultural Context
c S. Dedina: The Impact of European Contact on the Wetland Fauna of Lower CA
c E. Young: People and Whales in Magdalena Bay, Mexico
c C. Hoover: Cultural Constraints to the Management of Coastal Biodiversity in Honduras
c G. Gomez: Economic Incentives for Wetland Conservation: Louisiana's Alligator Management Program
Other session: Water Resources SG: Geography and Hydropolitics
m C. Hauge: The Nile River: An Analysis of International Watercourse Law
Other session: Coastal/Lacustrine Geomorphology
c Synoptic Weather Patterns, Wave Conditions and Beach Change
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine SG: Coastal Processes and Management Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico
c S. Williams, S. Penland, A. Sallenger: Rapid Coastal Land Loss in the Northern Gulf Of Mexico
c S. Penland, S. Williams, A. Sallenger, M. Byrnes, R. McBride, J. Kindinger: Formation and Evolution of Late Quaternary River Deltas of the Northern Gulf of Mexico
c G. Stone: Net Shoreline Stability During Net Sea-Level Rise: NW FL and SE AL
c R. McBride, S. Penland, M. Byrnes, S. Williams, M. Hiland, K. Westphal: Historical Shoreline Changes Along the Louisiana and Mississippi Barrier
c D. Reed: Depositional Processes in Louisiana Coastal Marshes
c D. Davis: The Louisiana Coastal GIS Network (LCGISN): Access to Spatial Data
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine SG: Stress and Adjustment in the Great Plains Settlement System
c N. Jackson: Non Locally-Generated Waves and Beach Change, Delaware Bay, NJ
c J. Allen, B. Bauer, N. Psuty: Beach Step Dynamics Over a Tidal Cycle
c K. Nordstrom, N. Jackson: Changes in Surface Gravels in an Estuarine Beach
c J. Ollerhead: Quantifying Sediment Accretion on Buctouche Spit, New Brunswick, Canada
c J. Mossa: Relationships of Riverine Suspended Sediment Fluxes to Shoreline Changes
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine SG/Geomorphology SG: Coastal Geomorphology II
c D. Sherman, K. Parnell, P. Hosking: Quasi-Rhythmic Dune Scarping at Omaha Beach, New Zealand
c N. Psuty: Sediment Budget and Dune/Beach Morphology Perdido Key, FL
c P. Gares: A Model of Foredune Blowout Development
c R. Arnott: Washout Healing on a Great Lakes Barrier Spit
Other session: Geographic Relationships in Containerization I
c Y. Hayuth, D. Fleming: Concepts of Strategic Commercial Location: The Case of Container Ports
c R. McCalla: Canadian Container Ports: How Have They Fared? How Will They Do?
c J. Starr: The Mid-Atlantic Load Center: Baltimore or Hampton Roads
Other session: Marine and Coastal Processes and Impact Management
m M. Flaherty, C. Karnjanakesorn: Commercial and Small-scale Fisheries Disputes in the Gulf of Thailand
m L. Handley, M. Fuhrmann, A. Calix: The Impact of Hurricane Camille on the Chandeleur Islands
c G. Smith: Land and Water-use Conflicts within the California Tidelands Trust
Other session: GIS student papers
m D.J. Wright, R. M. Haymon, and WHOI Imaging Group, Analysis of ocean floor data using GIS techniques
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine Hazards SG: Natural Hazards of South Florida
c J. Cross: Hurricanes and Development Within South Florida
c E. Baker: Hurricane Evacuation in Southeast Florida
c B. Kranzer: The Emerging Role of Regional Water Management Districts in Hurricane Preparedness, Response and Recovery
c R. Schultz: Beach Restoration and Maintenance in Florida: An Economic Response to a Geographic Hazard
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine Geography: Issues in Coastal Management
c N. Psuty, V. Jogoo: International Concern for Sea-Level Rise Issues
m G. Yohe: U.S. Economic Vulnerability to Greenhouse Induced Sea-Level Rise
c M. Eugenia, S. Moreira: Impacts of the Potential Sea-Level Rise on the Portuguese Coastal Wetlands
c P. Knuth: Inshore Response to Offshore Segmented Breakwaters, Presque Isle Peninsula, PA
c N. Devine: Sea-Level Rise and Third World Urban Coastal Hazards
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine Geography and Geomorphology Specialty Groups: Coastal Forms and Process
c P. McKay, T. Terich: The Gravel Barriers of Washington's Pacific Coast
c K. Jagger, N. Psuty, J. Allen: Spatial-Variations in Morphodynamic Relationships
m R. Arnott, A. Heyningen, D. Armstrong: Morphodynamics and Sedimentology of Longshore Sandwaves
c P. Gares: Predicting Erosion Along the East Coast of the United States
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine Geography and Geomorphology Specialty Groups: Sediment Transport in Coastal Systems
c J. Woodruff, J. Hardisty: Experiment on Bedload Transport in Asymmetric Oscillatory Flows
c B. Greenwood: Nearshore Sediment Transport and Morphodynamics: Methodology of the C-Coast Programme
c P. Osborne, B. Greenwood: Cross-Shore Suspended Sediment Transport: The Role of Wind-Waves, Infragravity Waves and Mean Flows
c N. Sela, B. Greenwood: Alongshore Sediment Transport: An Empirical Test of Existing Models
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine, Geomorphology SG, Coastal Geomorphology I
c D. Sherman: Estimating Wind Shear Velocity and Predicting Aeolian Sediment Transport Rates
c K. Nordstrom, N. Jackson: Tidal Cycles of Estuarine Beach Change
c P. Gares: Wind Flow and Sediment Transport Over Coastal Foredunes
c R. Arnott, J. Fisher: Washover Evolution on a Lacustrine Barrier Spit
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine, Geomorphology SG, Coastal Geomorphology II
c T. Terich, P. McKay: Inventory and Monitoring of the Olympic Park Seashore
c R. Dolan, S. Trossbach, M. Buckley: Analysis of Patterns of Shoreline Erosion for the Beaches and Barrier Islands of the Mid-Atlantic Coast
c R. Platt: Preservation of the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse
Sponsored session: Coastal and Marine Specialty Group: Tropical Marine Resources: Traditions, Change and Challenge
m T. Krabacher: Environmental Risk and Economic Success in a West African Maritime Economy
m N. Lewis: A Challenge for Marine Resource Development
m D. Miller: Caribbean Lobster Condominiums: Surf, Turf, Habitats and Humanity
c T. Eley: Mangrove Crabs and the Kiwai of Papua, New Guinea
Cliffs, caves, arches, and stacks are features along rocky coastlines. These are formed as powerful waves wear away the rocks at sea level.
The coast is the land along a sea. The boundary of a coast, where land meets water, is called the coastline. Waves, tides, and currents help create coastlines. When waves crash onto shore, they wear away at, or erode, the land.
Geography influences naval power at the national level and at the level of individual navies. In the case of the former, geography will help to determine a state's relationship with the sea, its maritime importance, its vulnerability to threats emanating from seaward and its need for naval power.