CSEC Geography - docshare.tips (2022)

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate ®

CSEC

GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS Effective for examina examination tion s f rom Ma May/June y/June 2007 2007 Inclu ding din g 2009 2009 amendment s

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

Published by the Caribbean Examinations Council. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission of the author or publisher. Correspondence related to the syllabus should be addressed to: The Pro-Registrar Caribbean Examinations Council Caenwood Centre 37 Arnold Road, Kingston 5, Jamaica, W.I. Telephone: (876) 630-5200 Facsimile Number: (876) 967-4972 E-mail address: [emailprotected] Website: www.cxc.org Copyright © 2005, by Caribbean Examinations Council The Garrison, St Michael BB14038, Barbados

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

2

Contents RATIONALE............................. ............................................ .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. ..................... ......1 1 AIMS ............................ ........................................... .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .................... .....1 1 GENERAL OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES ............................. ............................................ .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. ...............2 2 ORGANISATION OF THE SYLLABUS.................................... ................................................... .............................. .............................. .............................. ............................. ..............2 2 APPROACHES TO TO TEACHING THE THE SYLLABUS SYLLABUS ............................. ............................................ .............................. .............................. .............................. .................. ... 2 SUGGESTED TIME -TABLE ALLOCATION ............................. ............................................ .............................. .............................. .............................. ........................... ............4 4 CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION ............................. ............................................ .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. ........................... ............4 4 DEFINITION DEFINITION OF PROFILE DIMENSIONS......................... ........................................ .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. ................... ....4 4 FORMAT OF THE EXAMINATIONS EXAMINATIONS ............................. ............................................ .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. ........................ .........5 5 STUDY AREAS OF THE SYLLABUS ..................................... .................................................... .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. ................. ..9 9 SECTION I - MAP READING AND FIELD STUDY ............................... .............................................. .............................. .............................. ............................ .............10 10 SECTION II - NATURAL SYSTEMS ............................. ............................................ .............................. .............................. .............................. ............................. .......................... ............12 12 SECTION III - HUMAN SYSTEMS ............................ ........................................... .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. ............................. ..............16 16 SECTION IV - HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT SYSTEMS.......................................... ......................................................... .............................. ............................. ..............19 SCHOOL BASED ASSESSMENT...................................... ..................................................... .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. ....................... ........21 21 RESOURCES ............................ ........................................... .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. ..................... ......33 APPENDIX – EXAMPLE EXAMPLE OF A COMPLETED COMPLETED STRATEGY STRATEGY SHEET............................. ............................................ .............................. .................... ..... 36

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

3

The Geograph Geograph y Syllabu s (CXC (CXC 02/0/ 02/0/SYLL SYLL 98) 98) was revis ed in 2005 2005 for f irst ir st examinations in 2007. Teaching Teaching is expected expected to comm ence on the revised s yllabus i n September September 2005. 2005. The amendments amendments to the syllabus are indic ated ated by it alics.

Please Please check the websi te, www.cxc.org for o r up dates on CXC’s CXC’s syllabuses.

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

4

Geography Syllabus ◆ RATIONALE Geography is concerned with spatial expression, human and natural systems and the interrelationships between them. It facilitates an understanding of both the issues emerging from human exploitation of natural resources and how natural resources may be managed to assure sustainability. It contributes to an awareness and understanding of the natural environment and fosters an appreciation of its sustainability. It also encourages the development of a sense of responsibility in using and conserving the natural resources of the planet. Spatial expression and map reading skills are essential to a study of the subject. These skills enable an individual to operate better in space by being able to establish a location and an orientation whether inside a town or a rural area, or on a mountainside and to be able to read the landscape as well as assess the forces which have shaped them. The study of Geography, therefore, prepares an individual not only for a career in fields such as environment planning and management, international relations and geographical information systems, but also helps to develop skills that contribute to more meaningful and enjoyable travel and related leisure activities. The CSEC Geography syllabus, though not limited to a study of the Caribbean, focuses on areas of study that are particularly relevant to Caribbean students. The syllabus utilizes Field Studies to concretize the link between the subject matter of Geography and the methods of investigation associated with it. Students have an opportunity to observe, experience, reflect on, and draw conclusions about the intricate inter-dependence and inter-relationships that comprise the human and natural systems. A student completing the CSEC Geography syllabus should be able to make informed and rational decisions and act responsibly with respect to the human and natural systems.

◆ AIMS The syllabus aims to: 1.

develop an understanding of geographical phenomena;

2.

stimulate interest in the nature of Natural and Human Systems and their interaction;

3.

promote an understanding of the processes at work in Natural and Human Systems;

4.

develop an understanding of the interrelationships between the natural and the human environment;

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

1

5.

foster an awareness of the need for the sustainable use of our resources;

6.

develop practical skills to enhance geographical knowledge; and

7.

promote knowledge and understanding of geography at the local, regional and global scales.

◆ GENERAL OBJECTIVES On completion of this syllabus, students should:

1.

understand geomorphic, atmospheric and biotic processes;

2.

acquire appropriate skills and techniques used in geography;

3.

appreciate the forces affecting the spatial development and distribution of human population;

4.

demonstrate knowledge of the types, functions and growth of human settlements;

5.

develop an awareness and understanding of factors influencing patterns and changes in economic activity;

6.

appreciate the relationship between the natural and human systems.

◆ ORGANISATION OF THE SYLLABUS The syllabus is organised under four main sections: Section I Section II Section III Section IV

-

Map Reading and Field Study; Natural Systems; Human Systems; Human-Environment Systems.

◆ APPROA CHES TO TEACHING THE SYLL ABUS The syllabus encourages the application of a System’s Approach for the delivery of the material. This Approach is grounded in the holistic perspectives on the nature of human interaction with their environment. Further, this approach strives to develop the analytical capacity of candidates. It implies that topics do not have to be taught in a chronological manner nor as discrete elements and offers the flexibility for issues to be addressed across thematic areas. The System’s Approach allows the inclusion of all the factors involved in a particular topic, and examines their interrelationships and how they work as a whole. It emphasizes constant exchange of information between a system and its environment. In that sense, the System’s approach views the natural and human environments not as an inventory of elements, but as an interactive process of elements that must be understood in their totality.

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

2

Here are some suggestions of how relevant Specific Objectives and Content selected from the Map Reading and Field Study (mr/fs), Natural Systems (ns), Human Systems (hs) and Human -Environment Systems (h -es) may be combined holistically. S pe c i f i c O b j e c t i v e s

C on t e n t

(mr/fs)1, 2.0 2, 2.1 3, 3.4 5, 5.1

(mr/fs), 1, 2 Relevant field research, atlas, and topographical maps, graphs photographs and so on showing tourism and coral reef zones.

(ns), 16

(ns), 5 (iii), (iv), (v) Coral reefs, types, location conditions for growth.

(hs), 10,11,12, 13

(hs), 10 (3) Tourism, location factors, trends.

), 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

(h-es), 6 (i), (ii), (iii) Pollution, types, mitigation of coral reef degradation in specific areas.

Chart showing one way in which sample systemic interactions may be organized for teaching.

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

3

MA P REA DI NG A ND FIELD STUDY (c ont’d)

4.

5.

4.1

construct bar and line graphs and pie charts;

4.2

interpret tables, dot maps, choropleth and isopleth maps, bar graphs (including population pyramids) and line graphs and divided circles;

5.1

collect, record and present information based on field work on at least one (1) chosen topic.

CONTENT 1.

Maps (large and small scale).

2.

Photographs, graphs, tables, diagrams.

3.

Field Study.

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

11

◆SECTION II - NATURAL SYSTEMS SPEC IFIC O BJEC TIV ES Students should be able to: 1.

define crustal plates;

2.

name and locate the Caribbean and adjacent plates;

3.

distinguish among convergent, divergent and transform plate margins;

4.

explain the formation and distribution of volcanoes, earthquakes and fold mountains;

5.

explain the formation of extrusive and intrusive volcanic features and how these landforms change over time;

6.

define denudation, weathering, mass wasting and erosion;

7.

explain the processes of weathering;

8.

describe landslides and soil creep and the conditions which influence their occurrence;

9.

describe the water cycle;

10.

describe how water flows when it reaches the earth’s surface;

11.

describe river and wave processes;

12.

explain the formation of river valleys, river channels and coastal landforms;

13.

describe trellis, radial and dendritic drainage patterns;

14.

describe the characteristics of limestone;

15.

explain the processes operating in limestone landscapes and the formation of Karst landforms in the Caribbean;

16.

describe the types and location of coral reefs found within the Caribbean and the conditions necessary for successful coral reef formation;

17.

explain the differences between weather and climate;

18.

describe the weather associated with the five main Caribbean weather systems [hurricanes, tropical waves, cold fronts, anticyclones, Inter Tropical Convergent Zone (ITCZ)];

19.

locate areas in the Caribbean where these weather systems are dominant;

20.

explain how relief produces variation in the climate of the Caribbean;

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

12

NA TURA L SYSTEMS ( c ont’d)

21.

identify the components of an ecosystem;

22.

describe the characteristics of the climate, vegetation and soil of equatorial, tropical marine and tropical continental regions;

23.

locate areas where tropical rainforest and tropical grasslands can be found;

24.

explain the relationship between the climate, vegetation and soil of equatorial, tropical marine and tropical continental regions.

C ON TENT 1.

(i)

Theory of plate tectonics.

(ii)

Types of plate boundaries.

(iii)

Global distribution of plate boundaries.

(iv)

Caribbean and adjacent plate boundaries.

(v)

Formation and distribution of earthquakes, volcanoes and fold mountains.

(vi)

Intrusive volcanic features, (sills, dykes, batholiths) and extrusive volcanic features (cones and plateaux).

(vii)

Changes in intrusive and extrusive volcanic features over time.

(i)

Definitions of denudation, weathering, mass wasting and erosion.

(ii)

Weathering types (physical, chemical, biotic).

(iii)

Processes of weathering, (carbonation, oxidation, solution, frost action, pressure release, temperature changes, biotic).

(iv)

Mass wasting (landslides and soil creep).

(v)

Conditions influencing landslides and soil creep.

2.

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

13

The following timetable illustrates one way in which a teacher can meet these requirements: FOURTH AND FIFTH YEARS

Developmental

Form 4 (Term 3)

Form 5 (Term 1)

Form 5 (Term 2)

1.

Teacher initiates discussion of Field Studies with students.

1.

Students resubmit strategy sheet.

Students submit their completed reports early in the term (no later than mid-term).

2.

Students and teachers decide on provisional topics.

2.

Teacher and students discuss Field Studies as necessary.

3.

Students explore feasibility of methods to be used and to identify potential methodologies.

3.

Students process data, draw map.

4.

Students submit first draft of reports.

4.

Students submit first draft of Strategy Sheets.

5.

Teacher discusses data and findings with students.

5.

Students and teacher finalise the question to be studied.

6.

Students prepare written report.

Activities

6.

Students accompanied by a teacher go into the field, collect data.

7.

Students submit first draft of written report.

7.

Student and teacher review Strategy Sheet.

8.

Teacher provides feedback to student. Teacher marks individual reports using the procedures and criteria outlined in the syllabus.

Scoring

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

32

◆RESOURCES The following is a list of books and other printed material that might be used for teaching Geography for the CSEC Examinations. This list is by no means exhaustive nor prescriptive but indicates sources which teachers and students could use as appropriate. MAP READING AND FIELD STUDY

1.

Bennett, C. and Kemp, R.

Mapwork Two for the Caribbean, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1986.

2.

Evans, F. C.

Geographical Photographs, Third Edition, Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1982.

3.

Holmes, D. and Warn, S.

Fieldwork Investigations – A Self Study Guide , London: Hodder and Stoughton, 2000.

4.

Morrissey, M and Hart, G.

Practical Skills in Caribbean Geography, Bk1, London: Longman Caribbean, 1991.

5.

Morrissey, M and Hart, G.

Practical Skills in Caribbean Geography, Bk2, London: Longman Caribbean, 1991. Phillip’s Certificate Atlas for the Caribbean, London: George Phillip & Sons Ltd, 1995.

6.

7.

Nagle, G. and Spencer, K.

Geographical Enquiries Skills and Techniques for Geography, 2nd Edition, Stanley Thornes Publishers ISBN 0-7487-5318-4, 2000.

8.

Poxon, E. M.

Photo Mapwork for the Caribbean, New Metric Edition, London: Ginn and Company Limited, 1983. The Longman Atlas for Caribbean Examinations, London: Longman Caribbean, 1991.

9.

NATURAL SYSTEMS

1.

Bailey, W. Dutton, R. et al

Caribbean Landscapes, New York: Collins Educational, 1983.

2.

Bunnet, R. B.

Physical Geography in Diagrams, Metric Edition, London: Longman, 1965.

3.

Leong Goh, C.

Certificate Physical and Human Geography, New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.

4.

London, N. and Senior, M.

Principles of Geography for CXC, London: Longman, 2000.

5.

Nagle, G. and Spenser, K.

Advanced Geography through Diagrams, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

33

6.

Potter, R., Conway, D. and Klak, T.

The Contemporary Caribbean, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.

7.

Sealy, N.

Caribbean World - A Complete Geography, London: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

8.

Smythe, Brow, Fors

Elements of Geography, London: Macmillan Educational, 1982.

9.

Wilson, M.

The Caribbean Environment, Fully Revised Edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

10.

Department of Forestry in Jamaica

Trees, Forests and Timber in Jamaica, A handbook for School Teachers, Kingston: 1984.

HUMAN SYSTEMS

1.

Bailey, W. and Pemberton, P. H.

Geography for CXC, London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1983.

2.

Beddoe, I. B.

Social Studies for the Caribbean, Oxford: Heinemann, 1997.

3.

Bishop, V.

Hazards and Responses, New York: Collins, 2001.

4.

London, Norrel, A. and Senior, M.

Principles of Geography for CXC, London: Longman Caribbean, 1991.

5.

MacPherson, J.

Caribbean Lands, London: Longman Caribbean, 1990.

6.

Potter, R., Conway, D. and Klak, T.

The Contemporary Caribbean, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.

7.

Sealy, N.

Caribbean World, A Complete Geography, London: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

8.

Warburton, P.

Atmospheric Processes and Human Influence, New York: Collins, 2001.

9.

Wilson, M. and Ottley, J.

The Caribbean and Beyond, London: Longman, 2000.

10.

Wilson, M.

The Caribbean Environment, Fully Revised Edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

11.

Woodfield, J.

Ecosystems and Human Activity, New York: Collins, 2000.

HUMAN ENVIRONMENT SYSTEMS

1.

Waugh, D.

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

The Wider World, London: Thomas Nelson and Sons Limited, 2001.

34

2.

Wilson, M.

The Caribbean Environment, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Websites

1.

http://www.unepislanddirectory.com/dsidscnf.htm Developing States (SIDS)

2.

http://www.welcometo the Caribbean.com/future.htm

3.

http://www.ilo.org/public/gnglish/ampro/portofspain/infsources/sme/enterprise_cu... Small Enterprise Development in the Caribbean.

4.

http://www.sedcostlucia.com/oecs/OECS: Small Enterprise Development Unit

5.

http://amantoin.brinkster.net/ri/site/view.asp?id=15 OECS

6.

http://www.cedera.org

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

35

Sustainable Development of Small Island

Future Caribbean Development

APPENDIX EXAMPLE OF A COMPLETED STRATEGY SHEET GEOGRAPHY FIELD STUDY STRATEGY SHEET

To be completed by March 15 of the year of the examination. Make a duplicate copy of this sheet. Your teacher will return a copy to you. CANDIDATE’S NAME:

REGISTRATION NUMBER:____________________

William Smith

GENERAL TOPIC OF INTEREST:

CLASS: 4A

Industrial Location

POSSIBLE QUESTION TO BE INVESTIGATED: What are the advantages and disadvantages of the location of Banks Brewery? STRATEGY (A)

What is the purpose of your Study? To find out whether the brewery is well located in terms of the various theoretical factors which affect the locations of industries.

(B)

(C)

How will you obtain data? 1.

Interviews with the Production Manager on the operations of the brewery (markets, transport, labour, raw materials); and with staff on distance to work.

2.

Review maps.

3.

Review literature on brewery.

4.

Undertake ‘Field’ observations.

How do you intend to present the data and findings in your report? 1.

Illustrate data utilizing tables, maps and graphs.

2.

Analyze data

3.

Discuss findings and state conclusion.

LOCATION OF THE STUDY AREA: Banks Barbados Breweries Limited, Wildey, St. Michael . EQUIPMENT/RESOURCES REQUIRED: Large Scale Survey Maps of area ANTICIPATED CHALLENGES: Access to manager and staff – can school provide a letter?

Western Zone Office 11 November 2009

CXC

02/G/SYLL 05

36

Top Articles

You might also like

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Madonna Wisozk

Last Updated: 09/30/2022

Views: 6201

Rating: 4.8 / 5 (48 voted)

Reviews: 87% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Madonna Wisozk

Birthday: 2001-02-23

Address: 656 Gerhold Summit, Sidneyberg, FL 78179-2512

Phone: +6742282696652

Job: Customer Banking Liaison

Hobby: Flower arranging, Yo-yoing, Tai chi, Rowing, Macrame, Urban exploration, Knife making

Introduction: My name is Madonna Wisozk, I am a attractive, healthy, thoughtful, faithful, open, vivacious, zany person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.