[Download] UPSC Syllabus PDF | Complete Mains Syllabus GS1-GS4 Explained | 2019-2020 - India Shastra (2022)

Here you will get UPSC syllabus in eyecandy fonts. You can copy tables and paste on your evernote OR download PDF and print them out. Also I have discussed UPSC syllabus of GS Paper 1 to GS Paper IV topics in detail. These 4 papers cover 1000 marks.

  • I have not included optional syllabus as it differs from individual to individual.
  • Also, you can watch the full video on YouTube.
  • I will also upload PDF on Telegram by the time you are reading this blog.

There are 4 general studies paper each carrying 250 marks.

Table of Contents

How to Use this PDF

Keep them on your desk or where you study most of the time. Whenever you are reading newspaper, NCERTs or standard books –glance through PDF, find out is there any connecting link, if yes then go forward and read it OR else skip.

This is how you finish NCERTs in 90-120 days, this is how you cover entire syllabus of gs and get time for mains, and this is how you will finish newspaper in one and half hour.

The whole purpose is to get direction, save time, increase productivity and maximise output.

Syllabus of GS 1 contains –

  • Art and culture
  • History of India and the world
  • Geography of India and the world
  • Indian society

Note: I have left resource topic blanc intentionally. You can use this table, just copy and add your own resources that you are going to read.



Indian Culture – Salient aspects of Art Forms. Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

Modern Indian history-the middle of the 18th century until the present. Significant events and personalities. Issues in the same period.

The Freedom Struggle – Various stages + important contributors + contributions from different parts of British India.

Post-independence India: Consolidation and reorganization within the country

World History – From the 18th century – industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization.

Political Philosophies(World History) —> communism, capitalism, socialism etc. their forms and effect on the society.

Indian Society-Salient features and diversity of India.

Women:Role of women + women’s organization

Issues:Poverty + developmental issues, Urbanization –> problems + their remedies. Population + associated issues

ISMS: communalism, regionalism + secularism.

(Video) GS Paper 1, 2, 3, 4 | Detailed Syllabus Analysis for Civil Services Main Exam By Madhukar Kotawe

Globalisation: Its effects on Indian society Social empowerment,

Physical Geography: Salient features of the world’s Phy. Geo.

Resources:Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia + the Indian sub-continent)

Location:factors responsible for the location of industries (primary, secondary, and tertiary sector) in various parts of the world and India

Important Geophysical phenomena:earthquakes + tsunami + volcanic activity + cyclone etc.

Geographical features and their location:Changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) also in flora and fauna + effects of such changes.

Many of you asked in YouTube comments so here is the PDF.

[Download] PDF for GS1 Mains Syllabus Click Below



GS 2 Syllabus Contains Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations

  • Indian constitution
  • Indian polity
  • Social justice
  • Governance
  • International relations



Indian Constitution — historical underpinnings + evolution + features + amendments + significant provisions + basic structure.

Union and the States (Federalism) —>

  • Functions + responsibilities of the Union and the States. Also issues + challenges pertaining to the federal structure.

  • Devolution of powers + finances up to local levels —> challenges therein.

Separation of Power: Various organs dispute redressal mechanisms + institutions (institutions = judiciary, executive, legislature)

Comparison: Indian constitutional scheme compared with other countries

Legislature: Parliament and State Legislatures — structure + functioning + conduct of business + powers + privileges. Also issues arising out of these.

Executive and Judiciary: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries + Departments of the Government;

Pressure Groups: Formal OR informal associations, their role in the Polity.

RPA: Salient features —> Representation of People’s Act.

Constitutional Bodies: Appointment to various Constitutional posts. Powers + functions + responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

(Video) Important Subjects | UPSC IAS General Studies | Mains Syllabus 2023

Quasi Judicial Bodies + Regulatory Bodies + Statutory Bodies

Government policies + interventions —> For development in various sectors. Also, issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Development processes + development industry: the role of NGOs + SHGs. Also various groups + associations + donors + charities + institutional + other stakeholders

Welfare schemes:

  • For vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States. Also the performance of these schemes;

  • Mechanisms + laws + institutions + bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

  • Issues relating to development + management of Social Sector

  • OR Services relating to Health + Education + Human Resources.


  • Important aspects of governance – transparency – accountability,

  • E-governance — applications + models + successes + limitations and potential;

  • Citizens charters

  • Transparency + Accountability. Also institutional and other measures.

Civil Service: i.e. Role of Civil Services role in a democracy.

India and its Neighbourhood: Relations

Bilateral + regional + global groupings:

  • Also, agreements involving India and affecting India’s interests

Effect of policies + politics of developed and developing countries: on India’s interests.

Indian diaspora

Institutions: Important International institutions – agencies + fora, their structure + mandate.

Download Syllabus: GS2-Mains-Syllabus

WATCH: UPSC Syllabus explained

(Video) Understanding IAS Mains Syllabus | UPSC Mains 2022-23

GS Paper 3 contains-

  • Indian economy and economic development
  • Agriculture and related industries
  • Food Processing industry
  • Infrastructure and investment models
  • Environment and biodiversity
  • Science and technology
  • Internal security

Indian Economy: issues relating to planning + mobilisation of resources + growth + development + employment.

Inclusive growth–> issues arising from it.

Government Budgeting

Major Crops: cropping patterns in various part of India (Overlap with Geo)

Irrigation: Different types of the irrigation system,irrigation systems storage

[After Harvest] Transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints

  • Food Security: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices;

  • Public Distribution System: objectives + functioning + limitations, revamping + issues of buffer stocks + food security;

Technology missions: economics of animal-rearing,e-technology in the aid of farmers

Food processing industries in India: scope and significance + location + upstream + downstream requirements + supply chain management.

Land reforms: Before independence + After Independence

LPG: Effects of liberalisation on the Indian economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrialgrowth.

Infrastructure: Energy + Ports + Roads + Airports + Railways etc.

Investment models

Science and Technology:developments + their applications + effects in everyday life

Indian Achievements: science & technology; indigenisation of technology + developing newtech.

Awareness:IT + Space + Computers + robotics + nano-technology + bio-technology +issues relating to intellectual property rights.

Conservation:environmental pollution + degradation + environmental impact assessment

Disaster:disaster management + NDMA guidelines

Linkages between development and spread of fanatics extremism.

External Security: Role of external (state + non-state) actors in creating challenges to internal security.

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Challenges to internal security:

  • through communication networks + role of media + social networking sites in internal security challenges

  • Cybersecurity basics

  • money-laundering and its prevention

Border Areas:

  • Security challenges and their management in border areas;

  • linkages of organised crime withterrorism (ex Dawood)

Security Forces in India:Various Security forces + agencies and their mandate.

Download PDF –> gs3-mains-syllabus-pdf

GS Paper 4 contains Theory and Case Studies

  • Ethics and human interface
  • Human values
  • Attitude and aptitude
  • Emotional intelligence
  • Probity in governance
  • Citizen charter, RTI and corporate ethics
  • Ethics in public administration

Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; Dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

Human Values – Lessons from thelives and teachings (great leaders + reformers + administrators). Role of family, society andeducational institutions in inculcating values.

Attitude –content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought + behaviour + moral andpolitical attitudes + social influence + persuasion.

Aptitude +Foundational values forCivil Service:integrity + impartiality and non-partisanship,objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.

Emotional intelligence: concepts +their utilities + application in administration and governance.

Moral Thinkers:Contributions of moral thinkers + philosophers from India and the world.

Public OR Civil service values + Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concernsand dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience assources of ethical guidance;

Accountability and ethical governance:strengthening of ethical and moralvalues in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity;Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information

Codes of Ethics:Codes ofConduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilisation of public funds,challenges of corruption.

Case Studies on the above issues.

Download: gs4-mains-syllabus-upsc

(Video) IAS Exam Preparation | GS Paper I | Strategy & Analysis
[Download] UPSC Syllabus PDF | Complete Mains Syllabus GS1-GS4 Explained | 2019-2020 - India Shastra (2)

UPSC Syllabus PDF

[Download] UPSC Syllabus PDF | Complete Mains Syllabus GS1-GS4 Explained | 2019-2020 - India Shastra (3)

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What is the syllabus of gs1? ›

It is a subjective type of paper consisting of subjects like History, Geography, Art and Culture, and Indian Society.
IAS Mains General Studies – I.
Subjects in GS Paper 1Sub-Topics
HistoryWorld History
GeographyPhysical Geography of India & World
Human Geography
3 more rows

Where can I download UPSC syllabus? ›

Aspirants of Civil Services Examination are at the right place to get the details of the UPSC Syllabus. Here, at BYJU'S, you will find the complete IAS Syllabus for all the stages of the examination: Preliminary Stage – General Studies & CSAT. Mains Stage – 9 Theory Papers (GS I-IV, Language Papers, Essay & Optional)

How do I prepare for gs1 mains? ›

Important points:
  1. Do not read many books. Keep one source and read it many times.
  2. Make brief notes on the subtopics. Keep revising and updating them.
  3. Current affairs develop your analytical skills.
  4. Devote fixed time to answer writing.
Oct 3, 2020

What is the syllabus of GS in UPSC? ›

Indian and World Geography. Indian Polity and Governance. Economic and Social Development. General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change ( Covers only general awareness of the issues, no subject specialization required)

How many questions are there in GS 4? ›

There are FOURTEEN questions divided in two Sections and printed both in HINDI and in ENGLISH. All questions are compulsory. The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it.

How can I prepare for mains? ›

  1. Step 1: Be Consistent With Your Preparation. ...
  2. Step 2: Sufficient Time Allocation. ...
  3. Step 3: Choose Your Optional Subject Wisely. ...
  4. Step 4: Make Proper Study Plan. ...
  5. Step 5: Follow Daily Current Affairs To Keep Yourself Updated.

How can I complete syllabus of UPSC? ›

IAS Planner for Prelims

You should revise the entire syllabus at least 3 times. Solve as many question papers as possible for both GS and CSAT. If you do not solve at least 100 -120 practice papers then you are not going to pass. You should at least solve 10000 questions in all.

What are the 5 compulsory subjects in UPSC? ›

IAS Main Examination:
  • Paper A: (Indian language of choice) (300 marks)
  • Paper B: English (300 marks)
  • Paper I: essay writing.
  • Paper-II: general studies regarding Indian and world history, geography, culture and heritage, social issues (250 marks)

Can I clear UPSC mains in 3 months? ›

Generally, there will be a 3-month gap between the UPSC prelims and mains exam i.e., around 120 to 150 days to prepare for mains within which candidates have to study for 9 papers with a total of 1750 marks.

How do I complete a gs1 UPSC? ›

Two important things fundamental to your exam preparation:

Get familiar with all the topics and sub-topics by writing them many times – they should be strongly etched in your memory. Keep a copy of the syllabus always with you no matter where you are.

How can I score good marks in UPSC mains? ›

Here, we present 12 exam hall tips to boost your UPSC CSE Main (written) exam marks.
  1. Manage your time properly. ...
  2. Plan your answer structure. ...
  3. Write answers based on directives and keywords. ...
  4. Give an attention-grabbing introduction. ...
  5. Connect your answers with current affairs. ...
  6. Present your answers well. ...
  7. Don't use extreme statements.
Sep 21, 2019

What are the 26 optional subject in UPSC? ›

List of UPSC Optional Subjects
AgricultureAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary ScienceAnthropology
Civil EngineeringCommerce and AccountancyEconomics
Mechanical EngineeringMedical SciencePhilosophy
PsychologyPublic AdministrationSociology

Which subject is best for IAS? ›

Public administration and geography are the best subjects that can fetch more marks in the IAS exam.

What are the 12 subjects for IAS? ›

  • C Level Social Science Syllabus.
  • C Level Science Syllabus.
  • C Level Maths Syllabus.
  • C Level Basic Computer Skills Syllabus.
  • C Level English Language Syllabus.

How do I study for GS 4? ›

How to prepare for GS IV Ethics in UPSC
  1. Start early. ...
  2. Prepare a list of keywords (objectivity, values, moral turpitude, etc.) ...
  3. The keyword list is the foundation of preparation. ...
  4. Go through the must-read topics mentioned above.
  5. Refer to the past UPSC question papers and solve the case study questions.

Which book is best for UPSC GS 4? ›

Booklist for UPSC GS Paper 4
  • Ethics, Integrity & Aptitude – G Subba Rao & P N Roy Chowdhury.
  • Lexicon for Ethics, Integrity & Aptitude for IAS General Studies Paper IV – Niraj Kumar.
  • Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude – Santosh Ajmera & Nanda Kishore Reddy.
  • Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude – M Karthikeyan.

What is the syllabus of GS 4? ›

Candidates should focus on Attitude: Content, structure, function, its influence and relation with thought and behaviour for Part 2 of the question paper i.e. Case Study.
How to prepare ethics for UPSC Mains?
Focus Areas in GS IV Ethics Paper
S.NoEthics Topics
5.Emotional Intelligence
7 more rows

Is 4 years enough for UPSC? ›

And yes, 4 years is enough for your UPSC preparation, don't worry. But yes, As you are doing your graduation you'll have to balance both your graduation and your studies for preparation for UPSC. As you have 4 years you can prepare easily even if you give 6 hours a day, not much is required as you have 4 years.

Can I clear UPSC in 2 months? ›

Many IAS hopefuls might be wondering if it is possible to crack the UPSC Prelims in just 60 days. The answer is a resounding YES. People have done it before, and you can do it too! You need to follow a plan and work really hard.

How can I prepare for UPSC mains without coaching? ›

In a nutshell
  1. Read NCERT and other standard books.
  2. Read a newspaper and make notes.
  3. Practice writing answers daily for UPSC Mains exam.
  4. Choose and excel in the optional subject for Mains examination.
  5. Practice UPSC previous year question paper as well as the mock test.
  6. Groom yourself for interview.

Is 2 years enough for UPSC? ›

2 to 3 years preparation is enough for UPSC exam

It takes at least 2 to 3 years to prepare for Civil Services. You should start preparing for it from the days of your graduation. Start preparing for this exam by studying NCERT books.

Who cleared IAS without coaching? ›

Here we are giving the story of IAS topper Arunraj who cracked IAS in his first attempt. He bagged the 34th rank in IAS Exam 2014. Read about how to crack IAS in the first attempt without coaching.
IAS Booklist recommended by Arunraj:
SubjectBooks read
Other BooksIndian Constitution by Madhav Khosla
15 more rows

Is 3 years enough for UPSC? ›

The time required to complete the entire UPSC prelims and mains syllabus will take a good 12-month advanced preparation. However, that is an ideal case but not always necessary. With proper guidance, smart work and a strategy in place, a serious aspirant can clear prelims even with less than 2 months of preparation.

Is Ncert is enough for UPSC? ›

NCERT books are a must for the IAS exam. However, candidates should also refer to subject-specific books (e.g. Indian Polity by Laxmikant) and keep tabs on current affairs.

Which medium is best for UPSC? ›

You may have written the UPSC exam in English, but if you feel you are better off speaking Hindi or Tamil or any other regional language that is your native language, you can opt for it. In fact, there are many talented people in India who are well-versed in written English but falter when it comes to conversing in it.

Is UPSC very tough? ›

The UPSC exam is one of the hardest to crack in India but it is not impossible if you follow the right strategy. Here is a 10-point strategy list from an expert on how to crack UPSC. The UPSC exam is one of the hardest to crack in India but it is not impossible if you follow the right strategy.

What are the 24 services of UPSC? ›

All India Services
  • Indian Administrative Service (IAS)
  • Indian Police Service (IPS)
  • Indian Foreign Service (IFS)
  • Indian Audit and Accounts Service (IA&AS)
  • Indian Civil Accounts Service (ICAS)
  • Indian Corporate Law Service (ICLS)
  • Indian Defence Accounts Service (IDAS)
  • Indian Defence Estates Service (IDES)

Which is the highest scoring optional in UPSC? ›

Geography. Most of the aspirants choose Geography as their optional subject because it is noticed that it is the highest-scoring option in UPSC and most popular among the candidates. Last year also there were a lot of toppers with this optional.

Which optional is best for UPSC? ›

What are the top 10 optional subjects in UPSC?
  • Medical Science.
  • Literature.
  • Anthropology.
  • Public Administration.
  • Psychology.
  • Law.
  • Geography.
  • History.

Is UPSC mains conducted in one day? ›

The Mains Exam is conducted across 5-7 days. Only those candidates who have qualified Prelims are allowed to sit for UPSC Mains Examination. A separate hall ticket is issued to the qualified candidates.

Which is tough prelims or mains? ›

The UPSC Mains exam is very tough as compared to the prelims. Consider these stages as a hierarchy which only increases the challenging intensity with every level. Many think that the competition is lower in mains which is true. But the competition is even stronger than before because everyone is on the same level.

Are questions repeated in UPSC mains? ›

Yes! UPSC papers have repetitions of questions from previous year's papers, but only for certain topics.

How many questions are there in gs1? ›

GS Paper 1 UPSC 2021: Instructions

Total Marks: 250 marks, Time duration: 3 hours. There are 20 questions printed both in ENGLISH and HINDI. All questions are compulsory. The number of marks carried by a question/part is printed against it.

Are coaching notes enough for UPSC? ›

In college, it's fairly easy to read just the notes and score really well. But in UPSC, the questions are of higher standard and of deeper analytical depth. None of the questions usually come directly from your coaching notes. It's your clarity of concepts— especially in optional— that will help you write good answers.

What is penalty marks in UPSC mains? ›

(i) For each question for which a wrong answer has been given by the candidate, one-third (1/3rd) of the marks assigned to that question is deducted as penalty.

How many questions should I attempt in UPSC mains? ›

Candidate has to attempt FIVE questions in all. Questions no. 1 and 5 are compulsory and out of the remaining, any THREE are to be attempted choosing at least ONE from each section. The number o f marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it.

Which optional get highest marks? ›

For the optional, there are 2 papers, each for 250 marks. The optional in the UPSC mains exam is worth a total of 500 marks.
UPSC Literature Success Rate 2016.
Candidates Appeared5
Candidates Recommended2
Success Rate %40
12 more columns
Aug 19, 2021

Which is the shortest optional in UPSC? ›

Philosophy has the shortest syllabus out of all of the optional subjects for the UPSC examination and is the reason for it is a popular choice amongst UPSC aspirants.

Will UPSC remove optional? ›

Is Optional Subject removed from UPSC? No, the Optional Subjects are still a part of the UPSC Mains exam.

What is the salary of IAS? ›

The IAS Officers' Salary is as per the recommendation of the 7th pay commission. IAS Officers draw a basic salary of Rs. 56,100. They are also eligible for a number of allowances like Dearness Allowance, House Rent Allowance, Travelling allowances, etc.

Is height necessary for UPSC? ›

Physical Eligibility Criteria for UPSC IAS: There is no height, weight and chest girth minimum requirement as such for candidates for the IAS, unlike the technical services.

Which subject is best for future? ›

7 Best Courses to Study for Future Jobs
  • Master of Data Science. Data is the fuel which will drive our digital world. ...
  • Master of Business Administration. ...
  • Virtual Reality Design. ...
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) ...
  • Renewable Energy Engineering. ...
  • Biotechnology (Biological Sciences) ...
  • User Experience (UX) Design.
Dec 15, 2021

How can I download UPSC 2022 syllabus? ›

UPSC New Syllabus 2022 PDF can be downloaded from the link given at the bottom of this page.
UPSC IAS Main 2022 Syllabus.
Name of PaperSyllabusMarks
GS Paper IVCase study on above topics250
Indian Language Paper(i) Comprehension of given passages300
(ii) Précis Writing
(iii) Usage and Vocabulary
29 more rows
May 27, 2022

What are the 26 optional subject in UPSC? ›

List of UPSC Optional Subjects
AgricultureAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary ScienceAnthropology
Civil EngineeringCommerce and AccountancyEconomics
Mechanical EngineeringMedical SciencePhilosophy
PsychologyPublic AdministrationSociology

Is UPSC very tough? ›

The UPSC exam is one of the hardest to crack in India but it is not impossible if you follow the right strategy. Here is a 10-point strategy list from an expert on how to crack UPSC. The UPSC exam is one of the hardest to crack in India but it is not impossible if you follow the right strategy.

What are the 12 subjects for IAS? ›

  • C Level Social Science Syllabus.
  • C Level Science Syllabus.
  • C Level Maths Syllabus.
  • C Level Basic Computer Skills Syllabus.
  • C Level English Language Syllabus.


1. upsc syllabus 2022 in hindi || upsc syllabus || upsc syllabus 2021in hindi ||ias syllabus in hindi
(Ultra Knowledge Academy )
2. UPSC Syllabus 2021 | UPSC Syllabus 2021 in Hindi | Syllabus of UPSC 2021 | UPSC IAS Syllabus 2021 GS
(Aapka Study Channel)
3. GS Paper 4 & Essay | Postmortem of Syllabus | UPSC CSE 2023/24 | Madhukar Kotawe
(Exam रस)
4. Notes for UPSC Civil Services Examination PDF Membership
(Study Toons by Harsh Unhavane)
6. How to Prepare for UPSC Civil Services Examination 2021 One Year Plan Continued

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