Preparation Strategy for GS Paper I UPSC Mains - PrepLadder (2023)

Is your Civil Services Mains preparation underway? Are you looking for the right study plan and material for the General Studies Paper I preparation?

If yes, then you have landed on just the right page.

Here we will discuss the UPSC GS Paper 1 preparation strategy, tips, essential books, and valuable resources that will assist you in preparing for the UPSC Mains seamlessly.

It is a well-known fact that the marks obtained in the UPSC Mains are counted for the final merit list of the examination and interview. Hence, you should leave no stone unturned and devote extra time during the UPSC exam preparation to make it more productive.

(Video) Strategy for GS Paper 1 by UPSC Rank 5 2021 Mr. Utkarsh Dwivedi | Navigator by Toppers

Before moving further in this article, we want you to quickly look at the General Studies Paper I syllabus of the UPSC Mains to know what has to be studied for the paper.

Also read: How To Stay Motivated Throughout Your UPSC Preparation Journey

Syllabus of General Studies Paper 1 of UPSC Civil Services Examination

General Studies‐I: Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society.

  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from the 18th century such as the industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society.
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Salient features of the world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclones etc., geographical features and their location changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

It is evident that there is too much to study and grasp during the GS Paper I. To save you crucial time and to ensure that you invest your energy at the right place, we have compiled a list of important topics that you must study on priority while preparing for General Studies Paper I of UPSC Mains.

(Video) How to prepare for GS Paper 4 | Syllabus and Resources | UPSC Mains preparation Strategy

Also read: How to Write Good Quality Answers for UPSC Mains

High-Priority Topics of GS Paper I

Art & CultureIndian Art Forms
Classical Dance Forms
Folk Dance Forms
Ancient Indian Literature
Classical Sanskrit Literature
Medieval Literature
Modern Indian Literature
Harappan Architecture
Temple Architecture
Cave Architecture
Indo-Islamic Architecture
Medieval Architecture
Modern Architecture
Contribution of Buddhism & Jainism to the Development of Indian Architecture
Modern HistoryEuropean Penetration of India
British Conquest of India
British Policies & Their Impact – Economic, Administrative & Socio-cultural
Socio-cultural Reform Movements
Uprisings Against British Pre-1857
Growth of Nationalism in India (1858-1905)
Political, Economic & Administrative Unification of the Country
Role of Western Education
Role of Press
Rediscovery of India’s Past
Early Political Movements
Formation of INC
Swadeshi & Boycott Movement
Surat Split
International Influence
Morley – Minto Reforms
Growth of Communalism
Mahatma Gandhi – His Ideas & Leadership
Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
Rowlatt Act Satyagrah and Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
Non-cooperation & Khilafat Movement
Swarajists & No-Changers
The emergence of New Forces – Socialistic Ideas, Youth & Trade Unionism
Communal Award & Poona Pact
Participation in Elections to Central Legislature (1934) & Provincial Assemblies (1937)
Government of India Act, 1935
Towards Freedom & Partition (1939-1947)
National Movement During World War II
August Offer
Individual Satyagraha
Growth of Communalism
Peasant Movements
State People’s Struggle
Cripps Mission
Quit India Movement
Post-Independence IndiaNation Building
Partition and Its Aftermath
Integration of Princely States
Reorganisation of States
Issue of Official Language
Tribal Consolidation
Non-Aligned Movement
Wars with Pakistan & China
Nuclear Policy
Planned Development
Green Revolution, Operation Flood & Cooperatives
Agrarian & Land Reforms
The era of One-Party Dominance
The emergence of Opposition Parties
Emergency: Crisis of Democratic Order
Indian Women Since Independence
World HistoryRenaissance
Discovery of Sea Routes
Rise of Capitalism, Colonialism & Imperialism
Industrial Revolution
World War I
Causes of the War
Scope & Course of the War
Russian Revolution
Europe After the War – Fascism & Nazism
The Great Depression
The emergence of the Soviet Union
The US as a Strong Power
World War II
Fascist Aggression & Response of Western Democracies
Europe after World War II
Cold War
Rise of Asia & Africa
Developments in West Asia & North Africa
Indian SocietyDiversity (Types – caste, linguistic, social and religious, race, tribe and ethnicity, culture)
Challenges posed by Diversity
Unity in Diversity
Women’s Organisations – Empowerment through Action
19th Century Social Reform Movements and Early Women’s Organisations – (1) Agrarian Struggles and Revolt, (2) Participation in Freedom Struggle
Women’s Organisations Post – 1947
Basic Demography of India
Population Trends in India and their Implications
Causes and Effects of Overpopulation
Challenges of Population Explosion
Changing Age Structure of Indian Population
Demographic Dividend: Boon or Bane for India
Population Aging in India
India’s Population Policy & Initiatives
Concept of Development and Poverty
Types of Poverty
Measurement of Poverty – Poverty Line
Causes of Poverty
Poverty as a Social Problem
Poverty Alleviation Initiatives
Urbanisation Trends in India and Their Implications – Demographics and Social Dimensions
Factors Driving Urbanisation
State of Service Delivery and Challenges posed by Urbanisation
Problems of Urban Areas
Social Consequences of Urbanisation
Impact of Urbanisation in Rural Areas
Urban Planning and Role of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)
Reforms Required and Government Initiatives Taken So Far
Understanding Globalisation – Its Different Dimensions
Globalisation & Culture – Homogenisation vs. Glocalisation
Factors Driving Globalisation
Globalisation & India
Communalism – Its Characteristics
Communalism in India in the Past
Communalism in Contemporary India
Causes of Communalism
Consequences of Communalism
Concept of Region & Regionalism
Different Forms of Regionalism
Regionalism in India
Causes of Regionalism
Concept of ‘Sons of Soil’
Consequences of Regionalism
Federalism & Regionalism
Concept of Secularism
Indian Model of Secularism
Secularism in India
Nature & Practice of Secularism in India
Uniform Civil Code
Challenges faced by Secularism in India
Origin & Evolution of Earth
Interior of the Earth
Distribution of Continents & Oceans
Plate Tectonic Theory
Distribution of Earthquakes & Volcanoes
Rocks & Rock Cycle
Hydrological Cycle
Seafloor Spreading
Ocean Floor Configuration
Temperature & Salinity of Oceans
Movement of Oceans – Waves, Tides, Currents
Earth’s Atmosphere – Composition & Structure
Solar Radiation, Heat Budget & Temperature
Atmospheric Circulation & Weather Systems
Soil & Soil Contents
Process of Soil Formation
Soil Forming FactorsTypes of Soils (examples)
Land Utilisation
Land Use Pattern
Types & Distribution – Grasslands, Forests etc.
Causes of Depletion
Conservation of Forests
Marine & Freshwater
Water Scarcity & Need For Conservation
Types of Farming
Cropping Patterns
Contribution to Economy, Employment & Output
Classification of Minerals – Ferrous & Non-Ferrous
Occurrence of Minerals
Conservation of Minerals
Location & Distribution of the Industries on the Basis of Raw Material, Labour, Market, Capital, Land, Grants & Financial Incentives, Power, Transport, Water, and Communication.
Earthquake Waves
Shadow Zone
Types of Earthquake
What Causes Tsunami
Effect of Tsunami
Types of Volcanoes
What Causes Volcanoes?
Volcanic Landforms
Tropical Cyclones
Extra-Tropical Cyclones
Factors Causing Changes in Critical Geographical Features
Examples of Changing Geographical Features – Melting of Ice Sheets, Desertification etc.
Impact of Changing Geographical Features

Read more: Tips to Prepare Essay Writing for UPSC Mains

How to Prepare for UPSC Mains GS Paper I

For Modern History: Refer to books such as A Brief History of Modern India by Rajiv Ahir as the History area contains almost 30-35% of GS Paper I. Since more time is invested in preparing for the History part, it is recommended to make short notes during preparation. However, for a more detailed study, you can also refer to History of Modern India by Bipin Chandra (Selective Reading)

To fetch more marks, one should memorize and mention the dates of wars and important events accurately.

(Video) UPSC Rank 8 Ishita GS paper 2 & 3 Strategy, Booklist & Resources Navigator by Toppers - Full Episode

For Art & Culture: Also called the ‘Indian Heritage and Culture,’ Art and Culture is roughly 15% of GS Paper I. Indian Art can be classified under three headings, namely Performing Arts, Visual Arts, and Literary Arts. You can also refer to the official website of CCRT India.

Begin the preparation for Art & Culture with the NCERTs to understand the fundamentals and make short notes.

For Indian Society: Apart from the NCERT books for a basic understanding, refer to newspapers (The Hindu/The Indian Express) and the internet for preparing notes on the topics mentioned in the syllabus such as Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

Read more: What are PrepLadder NCERT Notes?

(Video) UPSC के नोट्स कैसे होते है .? Prepladder Upsc Notes Unboxing complete Review 🔥 | #UPSC_Notes_Review

For Geography: Mastering this area of GS Paper I is an easy task if you start from the very beginning. This approach will help you to understand the basic concepts. Referring to NCERTs is the best way to start the Geography preparation and studying Certificate Physical and Human Geography – G C Leong will yield good results if studied thoroughly. Memorize important terms and definitions related to this section to fetch extra marks.

Recommended Books for Mains GS Paper I Preparation

  • Indian Art and Culture – Nitin Singhania
  • Indian Culture and Heritage of NIOS
  • Mastering Modern World History by Norman Lowe
  • Old NCERT for Ancient India by R S Sharma
  • History Of Modern India – Bipan Chandra
  • NCERT Standard XI -Fundamental of Physical Geography
  • NCERT Standard XI – Indian Geography
  • NCERT Standards XII – Human Geography
  • Understanding Society- NCERT XI

We hope this article will help you prepare seamlessly for the UPSC Mains GS Paper I.

Level up your exam preparation with PrepLadder, Civil Services aspirant’s first choice for UPSC (IAS preparation).

It has everything you need to ace the Civil Services exam on one single platform.

(Video) How to prepare for GS Paper 3 | Syllabus and Resources | UPSC Mains preparation Strategy

This includes concise, effective, and well-planned video lectures by our Dream Team for UPSC, a well-structured and high yield QBank, highly competitive PrepTests based on real exam patterns, and Previous Year Papers in the form of tests.

Keep following our articles to apprise yourself with the latest information about the exam. You can also join our Telegram channel for UPSC exam preparation to always stay ahead.

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How can I start GS preparation for UPSC? ›

So for beginners, the best way to start the preparation for GS is to study all the NCERT from class VI to class XII for History, Geography, Economics, and Polity, the NCERT books for class XII and XII must be studied in addition to the lower class NCERTs.

How do I prepare for GS 2 or Booklist for mains? ›

Major league books for GS paper 2 preparation strategy
  1. Introduction to the Constitution of India.
  2. Select Constitutions – S. ...
  3. Challenges and Strategy – Rethinking India's Foreign Policy. ...
  4. Indian Polity for Indian Civil Services Examinations – Laxmikanth.
  5. Public Institutions in India – Performance and Design.

How can I get good marks in GS? ›

How do I prepare for the SSC CGL GS in less time and score 30+...
  1. Study And Analyse SSC CGL General Studies Syllabus: The first step is to be aware of what exactly you have to study. ...
  2. Refer To The Right Study Material. ...
  3. Make A Schedule And Follow It. ...
  4. Make Notes: ...
  5. Solve Previous Years' Papers. ...
  6. Practice Mock Tests.

Which book is best for GS 1? ›

Must have books or sources for GS Paper I of UPSC Mains Exam (UPSC Mains GS books)
  • History of the World by Arjun Dev and Indira Arjun Dev.
  • Social Problems in India by Ram Ahuja.
  • Contemporary Issues in Globalization by Soumyen Sikdar.
  • Certificate of Physical and Human Geography.
  • Indian and World Geography.

Which coaching is best for GS preparation? ›

Plutus IAS (Best IAS Coaching in 2022) is Best UPSC Coaching in Delhi. Ias Officer is very Demanding Every Where You get Great Respect once You Clear UPSC ExamPreparation for CSAT and GS in Plutus IAS Coaching is also provided in Hindi.

How do I study for GS 1? ›

You should study these topics and sub topics many times.
Important points:
  1. Do not read many books. Keep one source and read it many times.
  2. Make brief notes on the subtopics. Keep revising and updating them.
  3. Current affairs develop your analytical skills.
  4. Devote fixed time to answer writing.
3 Oct 2020

Is laxmikant enough for GS Paper 2? ›

For preparing the GS Paper -2 for the UPSC Exam M Laxmikant is essential but not sufficient. The book is basically factual in nature and does not deal with some of the important concepts.

Who scored highest marks in GS? ›

IAS Topper 2019 – Pradeep Singh (Marks in Mains + Interview = 1072) IAS Topper 2018 – Kanishak Kataria (Marks in Mains + Interview = 1121) IAS Topper 2017 – Anudeep Durishetty (Marks in Mains + Interview = 1126)
What is the last rank for IAS?
IAS General Studies Notes Links
Sarojini NaiduBlackbuck
2 more rows

Which optional has most overlap with GS? ›

The syllabus of Geography Optional overlaps with almost 40% of the GS syllabus.

How long does it take to prepare for GS? ›

Step 3: Schedule The Time You Need To Invest In Each Paper (Here Is What Our Experts Say)
Paper NameStipulated Time (Recommended by Experts)
General Studies Paper 110-15 days
General Studies Paper 210-15 days
General Studies Paper 315-20 days
General Studies Paper 415-20 days
2 more rows

Is 3 months enough for UPSC mains? ›

Generally, there will be a 3-month gap between the UPSC prelims and mains exam i.e., around 120 to 150 days to prepare for mains within which candidates have to study for 9 papers with a total of 1750 marks.
9 Things you should know to crack UPSC Mains Exam.
IAS General Studies Notes Links
Junaid Ahmad IASByzantine
4 more rows

Which optional subject helps GS? ›

Public Administration – Paper II (Indian Administration) overlaps highly with the polity and governance part of GS II. Sociology – Information from Sociology can be used in GS I, essays, and even in Ethics papers. History – Relevant for both prelims and GS I.

Who is the best teacher for GS UPSC? ›

Anshul Bajpai ( G.S History Ph. D in History ) is a History expert and is providing the best coaching service to IAS aspirants in the past few years.

Should I prepare optional first or GS? ›

First, start preparing for GS, and then after some time take this decision. Because in four GS papers you will be introduced to a variety of optional subjects like History, Geography, Public Administration, Political Science and Sociology. This will help you to determine your inclination to a particular subject.

Which GS book is best for all competitive? ›

  • Lucent's General Knowledge. This is one of the most popular books for General Knowledge among the students who are preparing for various competitive exams. ...
  • Rapid General Knowledge 2021 for Competitive Exams by Disha Experts. ...
  • General Knowledge 2022 by Arihant Experts. ...
  • S. ...
  • The Pearson Concise General Knowledge Manual 2020.
19 Jul 2022

Which coaching did srushti Deshmukh join? ›

But this was my personal call and I did not opt for it. Did you take any special help or coaching? Srushti: Oh Yes, I have been a student of the foundation course of KSG (Khan Study Group) - Bhopal Centre and after that I have been connected with KSG for the Prelims Test series. I gave my mock interview with Khan Sir.

Which is better Vajiram or Vajirao? ›

Conclusion of Which is better Vajiram or Vajirao:

As much as getting into a good coaching institute is concerned Our Research feels Vajirao & Reddy is the Best you can get. The Faculty is simply best. Teachers are Well Qualified.

Did Pradeep Singh took coaching? ›

IAS Pradeep Singh never settled for less

After Graduation, Mr. Singh took coaching classes to appear for the exam of Staff Selection Commission which is popularly known as SSC, and they're also he did not fail to get a good position and secured his first job as an Inspector in the Income Tax Department.

Which subject has more weightage in UPSC mains? ›

Polity and governance had maximum weightage with 11 questions, 4 questions were from International Relations and the number of Social Justice and Welfare based questions were 5.

How can I approach mains in UPSC? ›

How to prepare for UPSC Mains?
  1. UPSC Mains Exam Preparation Strategy # 1: General Preparation Plan.
  2. UPSC Mains Exam Preparation Strategy # 2: Answer Writing Practice.
  3. UPSC Mains Exam Preparation Strategy # 3: Mains Syllabus that overlap with Prelims.
  4. UPSC Mains Exam Preparation Strategy # 5: Current Affairs Preparation.

How many questions do GS 1 main paper contain? ›

The important features of the UPSC General Studies I Mains paper are: There are 20 compulsory questions printed in Hindi and English which are to be answered in the language selected while filling out the application form.

Can I directly start reading Laxmikant? ›

NCERTs 9–12 is an easy read.. you can just go through them so that, you get a background of what polity is .. it's like a warm up session :) and then you can start Laxmikant.. I would say, NCERTs make the base though in a very subtle way. But, if you start Laxmikant straight away, even then, it should not be a problem.

How many days M Laxmikant can be completed? ›

※※ Chapter 41 comes under Part X of the Constitution, minority protection acts.
How to Cover Laxmikanth (Indian Polity) in 10 Days.
17. PresidentOn completion, go to the chapter on Governor
26. Supreme CourtGo on to cover High Court
27. Judicial ReviewRead Through
28. Judicial Activism
9 more rows
25 Nov 2020

How many days should be take to finish Laxmikant? ›

Laxmikant before prelims in just 7 days. The detailed prelims syllabus can be found in the IAS Notification 2022 mentioned in this linked article.

What is the last rank for IAS? ›

UPSC 2018 Result was declared on 05th April 2019.
Final Rank Allocated for IAS, IPS, and IFS in 2018 (UPSC Rank Wise Post – 2018)
ServicesLast Rank
IRS (IT)239
1 more row

Which optional get highest marks? ›

Based on the general trend, the subjects which have the potential to help you score about 330 marks in optional exams (with your immense dedication, ofcourse) are Mathematics, Anthropology, Sociology, any Literature, Public Administration and Geography.

How many ranks will get IAS? ›

As per the UPSC Vacancy 2022, 1011 UPSC Ranks are expected after the completion of the exam. UPSC results will be released after the interview round along with the UPSC cutoff. Based on the cutoff marks for each category, IAS IFS IPS Ranking will be released.

Which optional has smallest syllabus? ›

Which UPSC Optional Subject has Smallest Syllabus? Philosophy has the shortest syllabus out of all of the optional subjects for the UPSC examination and is the reason for it is a popular choice amongst UPSC aspirants.

Which is the easiest optional? ›

Which optional subject is easy in UPSC? Answer: Sociology, Geography, and Public Administration are easy subjects to score.

Which optional subject has more success rate? ›

Success Rate of Optional Subjects in IAS Mains
Optional SubjectNo. of Candidates AppearedSuccess Rate Percentage
Electrical Engineering1939.8
Mechanical Engineering17011.2
40 more rows

Is 8 hours of studying enough for UPSC? ›

The UPSC civil services exam is considered one of the toughest exams in the country. And, because of this, a lot of people recommend studying for about 15 hours per day during the IAS exam preparation time.

How do I complete my GS 3 months? ›

Can prelims be cleared in 3 Months?
  1. Prioritise Your Areas:
  2. Analyse Previous Year Question Papers:
  3. Focus of Frequency of Revision:
  4. Be consistent in Covering Current Affairs:
  5. Clear Prelims in 90 Days:
  6. Plan of Action for 90 Days:
1 Dec 2021

Who cracked UPSC in 6 months? ›

Artika is one of those UPSC candidates who has aced the UPSC exam on the first attempt.
Marksheet of IAS Artika Shukla- Inspiration for all the aspirants.
Optional 2 (Medical Science)142/250
Written Total827/1750
Total (Mains)1000/2025 (49.38%)
6 more rows
6 May 2022

Is studying 4 hours a day enough for UPSC? ›

1) An aspirant may not be able to concentrate fully for the entire 5 hours; hence there will be gaps, 2) An aspirant has to study GS, optional, current affairs, etc., every day, and to divide the 5 hours, may not be effective. Hence, an aspirant should try to put at least 7-8 hours every day and gradually increase it.

Are questions repeated in UPSC mains? ›

Believe it or not, UPSC repeats questions.

Is UPSC mains conducted in one day? ›

UPSC Mains comprises 9 subjective papers including one essay paper, four GS papers, two optional papers and two language papers. The entire process is carried out on five days with two papers conducted per day.

Should I take coaching for GS UPSC? ›

You will not need to go to coaching institutes the way you have attended school to clear the IAS exam. Besides the optional topics, no particular analysis is required for any of the questions asked during the review. You can need to be trained because it is not a must if the optional subject is not the diploma.

Which optional subject is easy and scoring? ›

FAQ's on Easiest Optional Subject for UPSC. Which optional subject is easy in UPSC? Answer: Sociology, Geography, and Public Administration are easy subjects to score.

Which optional has maximum overlap with GS Quora? ›

Public ad as optional has more overlapping with GS papers because: First, Public Ad is one of the finest optionals for UPSC with a thin syllabus and instrumentality of topics for GS paper II of Mains also, apart from some coverage of topics from polity through the study of Pub Ad Paper II (Indian Administration).

What step do you start at GS? ›

A new GS employee is usually hired at step one of the applicable GS grade. However, in special circumstances, agencies may authorize a higher step rate for a newly-appointed Federal employee based on a special need of the agency or superior qualifications of the prospective employee.

Should I prepare optional or GS first? ›

First, start preparing for GS, and then after some time take this decision. Because in four GS papers you will be introduced to a variety of optional subjects like History, Geography, Public Administration, Political Science and Sociology. This will help you to determine your inclination to a particular subject.

How long does it take to prepare for general studies for UPSC? ›

How much time is required to prepare for UPSC? So, as you see there are a lot of things to be done when you prepare for the IAS exam. Inevitably, on average, people take at least 10-12 months to prepare comprehensively for this demanding exam. However, there have been candidates who would have done it in 6 months.

Can you skip GS steps? ›

You can skip grades by applying for job announcement "Open to all US Citizens" as long as you have the specialized experience. Also "exempt" agencies can promote without TIG requirements.

Is GS-13 a good salary? ›

GS-13 is typically a team lead position with around 10 people directly below them. Starting salary for a GS-13 employee is $81,216.00 per year at Step 1, with a maximum possible base pay of $105,579.00 per year at Step 10. The hourly base pay of a Step 1 GS-13 employee is $38.92 per hour1.

What is the highest GS pay grade? ›

GS-15 is the highest rank of the General Pay Schedule. Once reaching GS-15, the only way to continue increasing your pay is through step increases and yearly across-the-board pay increases that all federal employees receive. Also, moving to a region with a higher locality adjustment could increase your pay.

Which subject has most overlap with GS? ›

Know more about UPSC 2021 at the linked article.
  • Choosing optional subjects with maximum GS overlap: ...
  • History. ...
  • Geography. ...
  • Political science & international relations. ...
  • Economics. ...
  • Public administration. ...
  • Choosing the Right Optional Subject for UPSC Civil Services Mains. ...
  • Related Links:

Which optional is more overlap with GS? ›

The syllabus of Geography Optional overlaps with almost 40% of the GS syllabus.

Can I crack UPSC with 4 hours study? ›

You might find it hard to believe, but according to our experts at UPSC Pathshala, an IAS aspirant should study for exactly 4 hours everyday for one whole year. Yes, you read it right! 4 Hours – Everyday – One Year! This may sound crazy and impossible, but this is all you need.

How many hours of sleep is enough for a UPSC preparation? ›

Daily five to seven hours sleep is enough for a UPSC aspirant. If you are an aspirant with asthma, allergy or other health problem you need to sleep more. So, an aspirant does not waste even a single minute. If an aspirant is studying in the morning, they should take proper breakfast and should drink ample water.


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